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Foundations

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May 16, 2017
27:31

Why Israel Matters

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Foundations

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  • (Mati Shoshani narrating) It is the land of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob,
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  • the birthplace of Jesus.
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  • From Genesis to Revelation,
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  • Israel is the centerpiece of God's story,
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  • a saga that continues to unfold in our daily news.
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  • But behind the headlines are the people
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  • caught in the crosshairs of some really complex issues.
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  • It can be hard to see clearly from the outside,
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  • so let's explore my homeland from within.
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  • (narrator) Jerusalem, once considered the center of the world.
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  • This ancient city has been laid into the foundations
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  • of three major religions.
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  • For centuries the holy land has attracted a diverse
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  • and devout population of Jews, Christians, and Muslims.
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  • Today Jerusalem is home to layer upon layer of history,
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  • tradition, and complexity.
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  • Within her iconic walls, we find an endless maze of culture,
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  • religion, and nationality.
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  • Yet beneath these dividing lines there lies common ground:
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  • the sacred city.
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  • Let's strip away the layers and explore Jerusalem
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  • at her foundations.
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  • (Amit Grinfeld) We are going to see part of the gates
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  • of the Tower of David Fortress,
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  • the tallest point in the old city.
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  • You can see the central part of the turret
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  • with the gigantic stones built here by Herod the great,
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  • about 2.000 years old.
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  • Below it, crusader that added more fortification around it,
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  • 800 years old, and you have the Turkish edition
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  • all the way up, which is 500 years old.
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  • So, a Jewish tower, surrounded by a Christian fortification,
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  • and the upper part is Muslim.
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  • Jerusalem is a big, complicated layer cake.
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  • (Dr. Merav Mack) Jerusalem is right at the edge of the desert,
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  • and it's very much defined by the lack of water.
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  • Just on the other side of these mountains
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  • is where the desert begins.
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  • The conflict with the desert perhaps makes it
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  • a city of conflict, a city of tensions, of survival.
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  • Jerusalem is a city that is trying to survive.
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  • When I decided to look into Jerusalem's
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  • oldest libraries and archives,
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  • going back to the early Middle Ages,
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  • I discovered the city of true exchange.
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  • If you travel Jerusalem holding a guide book
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  • from the Middle Ages in Arabic,
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  • a Muslim guide, it mentions many sites
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  • that are important to Christians
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  • and sites that are also important to Muslims.
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  • So, Jerusalem is a meeting point
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  • for all three monotheistic religions.
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  • (Amit Grinfeld) This city is old, very old.
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  • It started somewhere in the early Bronze Age
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  • and it continued throughout all the different ages of history,
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  • Iron Age, First Temple Period, Second Temple Period,
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  • Roman, Byzantine, Arab, Crusader, Mamluk, Turkish,
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  • and those are just the main periods.
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  • Christianity, Islam, and Judaism
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  • left their mark more than anyone else.
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  • The Christian quarter is all around the beautiful domes
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  • of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher.
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  • The Muslim quarter is around Temple Mount
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  • and the shining golden dome, Dome of the Rock,
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  • and the Jewish quarter is around its main shrine,
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  • the Hurva Synagogue, with the white famous dome.
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  • (Dr. Merav Mack) There's so much that has been influenced
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  • by the religions affecting one another.
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  • It's the religious practice that was copied
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  • from one community into another.
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  • The most symbolic building of the Dome of the Rock,
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  • the place which is the foundation
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  • of the Jewish religion in Jerusalem,
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  • which is also the most important place for Islam in Jerusalem.
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  • (Amit Grinfeld) Many people believe that the Western Wall
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  • is the holiest place for the Jews on earth...
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  • ...which is almost true.
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  • The holiest of the holiest is actually below Dome of the Rock.
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  • We call it the foundation stone.
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  • This is where the binding of Isaac was,
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  • where we believe that the creation
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  • of the world started, therefore the foundation stone.
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  • Today the famous Dome of the Rock,
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  • which is a Muslim shrine, protecting the rock
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  • that is also holy for Islam, 'cause they believe
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  • that the binding of Ishmael was there,
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  • and where Muhammad was ascended to heaven to meet God
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  • and he came back with the five principal prayers of Islam.
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  • You can understand that this place is quite complicated
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  • as well, for it's holy for everybody.
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  • (Dr. Merav Mack) The Dome of the Rock was built on a site
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  • of the Jewish temple, but it also copies the building
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  • that was most important at the time that it was built,
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  • the Church of the Holy Sepulcher.
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  • Muslims who came to Jerusalem looked around and saw
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  • the most amazing building in the city
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  • and decided to build something that was even more beautiful.
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  • In the 10th century, the Jerusalemite historian
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  • Muqaddasi explains to us it was intentional
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  • to build a more beautiful building.
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  • One clear symbol is the size of the dome.
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  • The two buildings have an exact same size dome,
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  • which shows you there is a dialogue
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  • between the two buildings.
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  • (Amit Grinfeld) The famous Western Wall,
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  • the retaining wall of what used to be the great Jewish temple,
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  • we are looking at the ruins of the second temple.
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  • The Temple of Solomon was much smaller
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  • and completely swallowed by the second one.
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  • I can think of Yeshua, Jesus of Nazareth,
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  • coming to visit the same spot,
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  • only he walked down below where the people are today
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  • and he went up and into Temple Mount
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  • through one of the gates to visit the temple itself.
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  • (Dr. Merav Mack) Christianity was born out of Judaism.
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  • Jesus was a Jew.
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  • The same Mount of Olives is the place where Jesus
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  • came into the city, but also the place
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  • where he walked out of the city.
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  • Jesus looked back at Jerusalem and gave the prophecy.
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  • He started crying and said,
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  • "There is not going to be left one stone upon the other."
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  • The year 70, the destruction of the temple was a horrible moment
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  • for the Jews but also for Christians.
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  • Christians looked at it and said,
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  • "Jesus was a true prophet."
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  • That moment was fundamental to Christian
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  • thinking about Jerusalem.
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  • All of Jesus' followers, they were asking themselves,
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  • what does it mean, and can we bring Christianity
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  • or the new form of Jewish practices
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  • that have accepted Christianity into the world?
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  • Can we include in that people who are not Jews?
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  • First person to deal with that was Saint Paul.
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  • He's the one who said, "Absolutely.
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  • "Christianity is not just for Jews,
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  • it's also for the Gentiles."
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  • It's funny to think about it today in this way
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  • because we are so-- it seems so far apart
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  • that Christianity had to be just for Jews.
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  • Gethsemane is one of the sites in Jerusalem
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  • that I like most.
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  • It has those really old trees.
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  • The main power of the place is actually the trees themselves.
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  • Over 1.000 years old, probably almost 2.000 years old,
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  • and you see exactly what Saint Paul was talking about,
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  • the roots of the old tree, parts of it are completely dry,
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  • but it has new shoots coming out of it,
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  • and he thought about it as a great metaphor
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  • for the relationship between Christianity and Judaism.
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  • Christianity will not live without its basis
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  • in the Jewish roots
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  • and Judaism would be very much--
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  • for him would die without having the new shoots
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  • that were Christianity in his mind.
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  • (Amit Grinfeld) This city is full of limestones, and by the law,
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  • even the most modern buildings must be built
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  • only from limestone, or to be covered by them.
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  • Somebody just stuck, probably just to use it
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  • as part of the foundation, some beautiful
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  • chiseled column and the Corinthian crown.
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  • Somebody's decorations are now part
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  • of somebody's external wall.
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  • That's very Jerusalem, construction and destruction.
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  • So, from the Christian quarter to the Jewish quarter.
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  • (Dr. Merav Mack) They started by being Jews, they accepted Christianity,
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  • they separated from the Jewish community.
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  • Judeo-Christian, this is what we call them.
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  • The feeling towards Jerusalem is very complex
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  • because there is this foundation,
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  • the layer where Jesus said that there is not gonna be left
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  • one stone upon the other.
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  • Are we allowed to build Jerusalem
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  • or are we not allowed to build Jerusalem?
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  • It's an important question
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  • that Christians have to ask themselves,
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  • and they did it, and it was not until Queen Helena*,
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  • the mother of Constantine, came to Jerusalem
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  • and started building here that Christianity invested
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  • physically in the city.
  • 00:11:44.020 --> 00:11:46.280
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  • Christianity had a lot to deal with,
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  • first of all because it was incredible in its size.
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  • In Jerusalem, we find the most important moments
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  • in the split of the church, which is important until today,
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  • happened in the year 451.
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  • All the way from Egypt, through Syria, into Lebanon,
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  • through Turkey and Armenia, all these people who believed
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  • we must think of Christ primarily as a divine,
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  • but the whole of Europe felt differently.
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  • The Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church
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  • was combined in the feeling that we must think about Christ
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  • as having two natures.
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  • That question divided Christianity in the year 451.
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  • The world had split and it affected Christianity
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  • from that moment to a degree that the churches,
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  • the people, the communities were not able to pray together.
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  • (Amit Grinfeld) Look at all the limestone.
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  • Puzzle of so many different periods.
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  • Many people do ask me, "Who built this?"
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  • The answer would be probably everybody.
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  • Everyone want to build something in Jerusalem.
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  • Just imagine buying something in the market,
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  • and then you need to schlep* up all the plastic bags
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  • through that time and again.
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  • 00:13:24.280 --> 00:13:34.210
  • (Dr. Merav Mack) Jerusalem was known in Arabic as Bayt Al-Maqdis,
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  • which in Hebrew means Beit HaMikdash,
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  • the House of the Temple.
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  • People often talk about the Dome of the Rock
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  • as the most beautiful building in Jerusalem,
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  • but if you look beyond the beauty into the text
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  • written on it, right at eye level you can read
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  • inside the building that was founded in 691 A.D.*
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  • a text about Christianity.
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  • In the circle around from the inside,
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  • you see the text talks about the Trinity and about Jesus,
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  • and the reason it's there is because the Muslims
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  • were dealing with the religion that existed here already,
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  • and they were asking themselves, could you have a Trinity
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  • and still be a monotheistic religion?
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  • They thought that it was challenging,
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  • the very premise of the monotheistic religion,
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  • so they said no, you cannot say three.
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  • There is only one God.
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  • What's interesting about the Dome of the Rock
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  • is that these lines were written
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  • before the Quran was even edited,
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  • before it was completed.
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  • So, you have very old text in the building
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  • of the Dome of the Rock,
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  • predating the final indexing and editing of the Quran.
  • 00:14:48.120 --> 00:14:54.120
  • 00:14:54.130 --> 00:15:00.080
  • The liberation of Jerusalem by the Crusaders
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  • became one of the most important moments
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  • in the history of Christianity.
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  • The Crusaders came here and lived here
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  • and created a kingdom here.
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  • They rebuilt Jerusalem and had the walls reconstructed.
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  • They built churches all over.
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  • All of them exist until today.
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  • If you walk into the city, you can find those monuments.
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  • They're amazing.
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  • But how come the popes never came here?
  • 00:15:27.220 --> 00:15:32.060
  • It was only 60 years ago that the Pope came to Jerusalem
  • 00:15:32.070 --> 00:15:35.260
  • for the first time.
  • 00:15:35.270 --> 00:15:37.290
  • This is exactly the duality that Christianity has with Jerusalem.
  • 00:15:38.000 --> 00:15:42.200
  • (Amit Grinfeld) So, instead of walking through the crowded Arab bazaar,
  • 00:15:45.050 --> 00:15:49.000
  • we'll walk above it through some of those little alleyways.
  • 00:15:49.010 --> 00:15:53.130
  • (Dr. Merav Mack) Unlike Judaism, that was so focused
  • 00:15:53.140 --> 00:15:56.010
  • on pilgrimage to Jerusalem,
  • 00:15:56.020 --> 00:15:58.140
  • on making Jerusalem the Holy City,
  • 00:15:58.150 --> 00:16:01.260
  • Christianity moved on from that, thinking,
  • 00:16:01.270 --> 00:16:05.090
  • "Actually, we don't have to be.
  • 00:16:05.100 --> 00:16:06.280
  • "We're not bound by a particular place.
  • 00:16:06.290 --> 00:16:10.030
  • There is no need to sacrifice anything in a temple."
  • 00:16:10.040 --> 00:16:14.100
  • They could break that bondage to the place, to Jerusalem,
  • 00:16:14.110 --> 00:16:18.250
  • and could go all over the world.
  • 00:16:18.260 --> 00:16:21.150
  • (Amit Grinfeld) There are more than 25.000 people living
  • 00:16:21.160 --> 00:16:25.180
  • in the old city, in an area that is slightly bigger
  • 00:16:25.190 --> 00:16:28.200
  • than 1 square mile,
  • 00:16:28.210 --> 00:16:30.120
  • and you can barely find an empty apartment here.
  • 00:16:30.130 --> 00:16:33.190
  • (Dr. Merav Mack) This was a place where communities,
  • 00:16:40.240 --> 00:16:42.280
  • especially the Christian communities that came here
  • 00:16:42.290 --> 00:16:45.190
  • from all over the world and settled here
  • 00:16:45.200 --> 00:16:48.100
  • and developed here, left behind a great heritage
  • 00:16:48.110 --> 00:16:51.210
  • that still exists here.
  • 00:16:51.220 --> 00:16:55.050
  • At the top of the Mount of Olives,
  • 00:16:55.060 --> 00:16:57.150
  • you can see the Church of the Ascension,
  • 00:16:57.160 --> 00:16:59.150
  • right at the highest building in the horizon,
  • 00:16:59.160 --> 00:17:02.180
  • and inside that church, you can find
  • 00:17:02.190 --> 00:17:05.200
  • the oldest existing Armenian inscription in the world.
  • 00:17:05.210 --> 00:17:09.250
  • We also have the oldest existing inscription in Georgian
  • 00:17:09.260 --> 00:17:13.090
  • in the world, in Jerusalem.
  • 00:17:13.100 --> 00:17:15.010
  • This is, for me, is what makes Jerusalem such a wonderful place
  • 00:17:15.020 --> 00:17:18.090
  • and such an extraordinary place.
  • 00:17:18.100 --> 00:17:21.060
  • Because now the Russians are the ones who are keeping
  • 00:17:21.070 --> 00:17:24.070
  • the Armenian inscriptions, because the Franciscans
  • 00:17:24.080 --> 00:17:28.130
  • are the ones who take care of the Georgian inscriptions.
  • 00:17:28.140 --> 00:17:31.280
  • In all the libraries, the Greeks would have material in Ge'ez*,
  • 00:17:31.290 --> 00:17:36.270
  • written by the Ethiopians who brought it over
  • 00:17:36.280 --> 00:17:39.180
  • in the Middle Ages when they moved into Jerusalem.
  • 00:17:39.190 --> 00:17:43.280
  • 00:17:43.290 --> 00:17:47.250
  • The oldest Christian communities in Jerusalem
  • 00:17:47.260 --> 00:17:49.250
  • are the Palestinian Christians.
  • 00:17:49.260 --> 00:17:52.070
  • People sometimes forget when they come to Jerusalem,
  • 00:17:52.080 --> 00:17:54.270
  • they look at the sites.
  • 00:17:54.280 --> 00:17:56.160
  • They look--everyone goes to the Holy Sepulcher,
  • 00:17:56.170 --> 00:17:58.080
  • everyone goes to visit various sites,
  • 00:17:58.090 --> 00:18:02.140
  • but they forget that the people themselves
  • 00:18:02.150 --> 00:18:05.010
  • are so fascinating and that they have been here
  • 00:18:05.020 --> 00:18:08.020
  • since the time of Jesus.
  • 00:18:08.030 --> 00:18:10.000
  • Very little research has been done
  • 00:18:10.010 --> 00:18:11.180
  • on those really old families of Jerusalem.
  • 00:18:11.190 --> 00:18:14.180
  • 00:18:14.190 --> 00:18:19.100
  • Christians are being persecuted
  • 00:18:19.110 --> 00:18:21.030
  • throughout the Middle East.
  • 00:18:21.040 --> 00:18:22.210
  • There's no doubt this is a tragedy
  • 00:18:22.220 --> 00:18:25.020
  • for the Christian population that has lived here
  • 00:18:25.030 --> 00:18:28.250
  • continuously from-- since the time of Jesus.
  • 00:18:28.260 --> 00:18:31.270
  • The Christian population, by decreasing in number,
  • 00:18:31.280 --> 00:18:35.240
  • is now forced to come together in a way
  • 00:18:35.250 --> 00:18:39.220
  • that the communities were not able to do beforehand,
  • 00:18:39.230 --> 00:18:43.170
  • finding practices that allow them to bridge
  • 00:18:43.180 --> 00:18:46.210
  • over the big gaps that were created over the years
  • 00:18:46.220 --> 00:18:50.170
  • between the Christian denominations.
  • 00:18:50.180 --> 00:18:54.050
  • It's more than a symbol that Pope Francis came to Jerusalem
  • 00:18:54.060 --> 00:18:58.080
  • with the Patriarch of Constantinople
  • 00:18:58.090 --> 00:19:00.160
  • to pray together
  • 00:19:00.170 --> 00:19:02.090
  • that Christianity will be united again in Jerusalem.
  • 00:19:02.100 --> 00:19:06.180
  • The gap between the communities for thousands of years
  • 00:19:06.190 --> 00:19:10.100
  • has finally--is finally beginning to be bridged.
  • 00:19:10.110 --> 00:19:15.020
  • Isn't it amazing that in a place like Jerusalem,
  • 00:19:15.030 --> 00:19:17.140
  • we have three Christmases celebrated
  • 00:19:17.150 --> 00:19:19.240
  • because we have three different Christian calendars in one city?
  • 00:19:19.250 --> 00:19:25.130
  • The fact that they came to living together
  • 00:19:25.140 --> 00:19:27.240
  • and bridging over those gaps in this way is partially tragic.
  • 00:19:27.250 --> 00:19:32.220
  • It's because Christianity has decreased so much in the region
  • 00:19:32.230 --> 00:19:36.160
  • in recent years, partially because of persecution
  • 00:19:36.170 --> 00:19:41.010
  • and because people have migrated away from the Middle East.
  • 00:19:41.020 --> 00:19:47.120
  • But it's also because the families themselves,
  • 00:19:47.130 --> 00:19:50.250
  • the grassroots power of wanting a change,
  • 00:19:50.260 --> 00:19:54.120
  • wanting to see the communities coming together,
  • 00:19:54.130 --> 00:19:58.050
  • they would love to see Christianity united again.
  • 00:19:58.060 --> 00:20:01.080
  • The same aspiration that the Pope brought to Jerusalem
  • 00:20:01.090 --> 00:20:05.170
  • together with the Patriarch of Constantinople,
  • 00:20:05.180 --> 00:20:08.270
  • they were praying together for peace inside Christianity,
  • 00:20:08.280 --> 00:20:14.040
  • to bring Christianity together, and that the communities
  • 00:20:14.050 --> 00:20:17.150
  • would be able to pray together once more.
  • 00:20:17.160 --> 00:20:22.020
  • 00:20:22.030 --> 00:20:27.250
  • Jerusalem is the most eschatological place
  • 00:20:27.260 --> 00:20:30.190
  • in the world.
  • 00:20:30.200 --> 00:20:32.010
  • This is a place that attracts all the stories
  • 00:20:32.020 --> 00:20:34.010
  • of the end of days.
  • 00:20:34.020 --> 00:20:35.250
  • The apocalypse happens here.
  • 00:20:35.260 --> 00:20:38.240
  • The top of the Mount of Olives is a place where,
  • 00:20:40.040 --> 00:20:42.230
  • according to the Jewish tradition,
  • 00:20:42.240 --> 00:20:44.210
  • the Messiah would stand at the top of the mountain
  • 00:20:44.220 --> 00:20:47.150
  • and there would be a great earthquake.
  • 00:20:47.160 --> 00:20:50.160
  • We read about that in the book of Zechariah,
  • 00:20:50.170 --> 00:20:53.140
  • and then when you add to that the prophecy of the dry bones,
  • 00:20:53.150 --> 00:20:58.110
  • their story of the apocalypse,
  • 00:20:58.120 --> 00:21:00.260
  • and how the resurrection will start.
  • 00:21:00.270 --> 00:21:04.270
  • Today the Mount of Olives is the largest existing
  • 00:21:08.020 --> 00:21:10.240
  • Jewish cemetery in the world, going back thousands of years.
  • 00:21:10.250 --> 00:21:14.070
  • You find remains of people from the time of Jesus,
  • 00:21:14.080 --> 00:21:16.270
  • but also 1.000 years beforehand.
  • 00:21:16.280 --> 00:21:19.200
  • That's really incredible.
  • 00:21:19.210 --> 00:21:22.180
  • 00:21:22.190 --> 00:21:28.070
  • Jerusalem is a place where Jesus not only died
  • 00:21:28.080 --> 00:21:31.080
  • but resurrected.
  • 00:21:31.090 --> 00:21:33.120
  • That is the most important thing.
  • 00:21:33.130 --> 00:21:36.000
  • In Greek, the Church of the Holy Sepulcher
  • 00:21:36.010 --> 00:21:38.080
  • is not called the Holy Sepulcher.
  • 00:21:38.090 --> 00:21:40.000
  • It's not about the death.
  • 00:21:40.010 --> 00:21:41.200
  • It's called the Anastasis, the Resurrection.
  • 00:21:41.210 --> 00:21:45.060
  • It's about the absence of Jesus in that tomb,
  • 00:21:45.070 --> 00:21:48.220
  • and the absence makes the promise of God,
  • 00:21:48.230 --> 00:21:53.070
  • of resurrection, possible.
  • 00:21:53.080 --> 00:21:55.110
  • Jews as well, they're waiting for the promise of resurrection
  • 00:21:55.120 --> 00:21:58.100
  • and pray for resurrection constantly.
  • 00:21:58.110 --> 00:22:01.240
  • This is one of those links that bring together
  • 00:22:04.290 --> 00:22:07.020
  • the three villages,
  • 00:22:07.030 --> 00:22:08.220
  • thinking about the promise, thinking about its fulfillment,
  • 00:22:08.230 --> 00:22:13.030
  • and the place that Jerusalem play in those questions.
  • 00:22:13.040 --> 00:22:18.160
  • 00:22:18.170 --> 00:22:28.160
  • 00:22:28.170 --> 00:22:32.060
  • You can't really understand one community
  • 00:22:32.070 --> 00:22:36.020
  • without studying the other communities.
  • 00:22:36.030 --> 00:22:39.230
  • The religious communities, all three of them,
  • 00:22:39.240 --> 00:22:42.000
  • are very interlinked in the way they preserve
  • 00:22:42.010 --> 00:22:45.210
  • their knowledge and the knowledge of each other.
  • 00:22:45.220 --> 00:22:50.080
  • 00:22:50.090 --> 00:22:56.020
  • (Amit Grinfeld) Right above the bazaar, below me, David Street,
  • 00:22:57.270 --> 00:23:01.240
  • which goes all the way up to the Tower of David
  • 00:23:01.250 --> 00:23:04.040
  • where we started.
  • 00:23:04.050 --> 00:23:06.280
  • 00:23:06.290 --> 00:23:15.230
  • (Dr. Merav Mack) Those old trees tell a story
  • 00:23:15.240 --> 00:23:18.050
  • that has been told here originally,
  • 00:23:18.060 --> 00:23:21.070
  • and continues to be told when people come
  • 00:23:21.080 --> 00:23:23.230
  • and visit the sites where those trees still exist.
  • 00:23:23.240 --> 00:23:27.260
  • I think that they can relate to that story
  • 00:23:27.270 --> 00:23:30.100
  • and to their own relationship
  • 00:23:30.110 --> 00:23:32.160
  • with both Christianity and Judaism.
  • 00:23:32.170 --> 00:23:36.010
  • 00:23:36.020 --> 00:23:43.260
  • The foundation of Christianity on Judaism
  • 00:23:43.270 --> 00:23:47.270
  • is so important that we would not be able
  • 00:23:47.280 --> 00:23:49.290
  • to understand Christianity otherwise.
  • 00:23:50.000 --> 00:23:53.070
  • 00:23:53.080 --> 00:23:57.160
  • The contact and the relation to Judaism remains,
  • 00:23:57.170 --> 00:24:02.250
  • and it's very, very powerful.
  • 00:24:04.100 --> 00:24:07.260
  • (female narrator) Culture, religion, nationality,
  • 00:24:11.120 --> 00:24:15.080
  • these are the foundations of identity,
  • 00:24:15.090 --> 00:24:17.210
  • especially in Jerusalem.
  • 00:24:17.220 --> 00:24:19.270
  • Jerusalem is a meeting point for monotheistic religions.
  • 00:24:19.280 --> 00:24:23.180
  • From the early Bronze Age to today,
  • 00:24:23.190 --> 00:24:25.210
  • it's a place defined by religion and culture.
  • 00:24:25.220 --> 00:24:30.050
  • Marked by the influences of Judaism, Christianity,
  • 00:24:30.060 --> 00:24:33.010
  • and Islam, the cultural practices of Israel
  • 00:24:33.020 --> 00:24:36.040
  • have been shaped by these three major religions.
  • 00:24:36.050 --> 00:24:39.250
  • Judaism has the oldest roots,
  • 00:24:39.260 --> 00:24:41.200
  • dating back to 2.000 B.C.
  • 00:24:41.210 --> 00:24:44.050
  • Out of this tradition, Christianity was born.
  • 00:24:44.060 --> 00:24:47.290
  • At its birth, Christianity was an extension of Judaism.
  • 00:24:48.000 --> 00:24:51.070
  • Jesus was himself a Jew.
  • 00:24:51.080 --> 00:24:53.150
  • His followers considered him a rabbi.
  • 00:24:53.160 --> 00:24:56.010
  • The division into a different religious sect came
  • 00:24:56.020 --> 00:24:58.130
  • in the first century.
  • 00:24:58.140 --> 00:25:00.160
  • The people who had adopted the religious views of Jesus
  • 00:25:00.170 --> 00:25:03.190
  • were denoted as Christians, which means "Little Christ."
  • 00:25:03.200 --> 00:25:07.200
  • Islam emerged in the seventh century.
  • 00:25:07.210 --> 00:25:10.090
  • The tension between Islam and Judaism is one
  • 00:25:10.100 --> 00:25:12.150
  • burdened by the past.
  • 00:25:12.160 --> 00:25:14.290
  • The Temple Mount is considered a holy place in the Jewish
  • 00:25:15.000 --> 00:25:17.260
  • and Islamic religions.
  • 00:25:17.270 --> 00:25:19.190
  • That collision of history has caused the culture war
  • 00:25:19.200 --> 00:25:22.130
  • surrounding this iconic site, which is home to both
  • 00:25:22.140 --> 00:25:25.240
  • the Western Wall and the Dome of the Rock.
  • 00:25:25.250 --> 00:25:29.110
  • Jerusalem is a cornerstone of true exchange.
  • 00:25:29.120 --> 00:25:33.000
  • This city could not be understood
  • 00:25:33.010 --> 00:25:34.240
  • without the connections of these religious groups.
  • 00:25:34.250 --> 00:25:38.150
  • They have created a land unlike any other in the Middle East,
  • 00:25:38.160 --> 00:25:42.030
  • a place that holds the passing of time
  • 00:25:42.040 --> 00:25:44.030
  • in its architecture and its culture,
  • 00:25:44.040 --> 00:25:46.280
  • where the pace of its people is shaped by the foundations
  • 00:25:46.290 --> 00:25:49.220
  • of three very different faiths.
  • 00:25:49.230 --> 00:25:53.000
  • "Pray for the peace of Jerusalem.
  • 00:25:53.010 --> 00:25:55.120
  • May all who love this city prosper,"
  • 00:25:55.130 --> 00:25:58.220
  • Psalm 122, verse 6.
  • 00:25:58.230 --> 00:26:00.210
  • (Mati Shoshani narrating) Though her history is disputed,
  • 00:26:03.270 --> 00:26:05.280
  • Jerusalem's significance cannot be overlooked.
  • 00:26:05.290 --> 00:26:08.260
  • She has served as a battleground,
  • 00:26:08.270 --> 00:26:10.190
  • a burial ground, and a bedrock for religion and culture.
  • 00:26:10.200 --> 00:26:14.110
  • With this foundation, is it any wonder
  • 00:26:14.120 --> 00:26:16.260
  • this city has been resurrected time and time again?
  • 00:26:16.270 --> 00:26:20.200
  • Though tension and conflict remain the brick and mortar
  • 00:26:20.210 --> 00:26:22.220
  • of daily life within Jerusalem's gates,
  • 00:26:22.230 --> 00:26:25.040
  • there's no denying that the people living inside
  • 00:26:25.050 --> 00:26:27.050
  • are connected by their reverence for this holy place.
  • 00:26:27.060 --> 00:26:31.030
  • I leave you with a psalm penned by King David,
  • 00:26:31.040 --> 00:26:33.060
  • a blessing over the city, and indeed a prayer for Israel.
  • 00:26:33.070 --> 00:26:37.000
  • "Pray for the peace of Jerusalem:
  • 00:26:37.010 --> 00:26:39.010
  • "'May they prosper who love you.
  • 00:26:39.020 --> 00:26:40.290
  • "'May peace be within your walls
  • 00:26:41.000 --> 00:26:43.000
  • "and prosperity within your palaces.'
  • 00:26:43.010 --> 00:26:45.080
  • "For the sake of my brothers and friends, I will now say,
  • 00:26:45.090 --> 00:26:48.010
  • "'May peace be within you.'
  • 00:26:48.020 --> 00:26:49.260
  • "For the sake of the house of the Lord our God
  • 00:26:49.270 --> 00:26:52.140
  • I will seek your good."
  • 00:26:52.150 --> 00:26:54.150
  • (female announcer) Thank you for watching "Why Israel Matters."
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