Nathaniel Jeanson | The Secret Timekeeper of Creation | TBN

Nathaniel Jeanson | The Secret Timekeeper of Creation

Watch Nathaniel Jeanson | The Secret Timekeeper of Creation
October 5, 2019
27:29

Creation in the 21st Century with David Rives

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Nathaniel Jeanson | The Secret Timekeeper of Creation

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  • - DAVID RIVES: COMING UP ON
  • 00:00:00.000 --> 00:00:01.100
  • "CREATION IN THE 21ST CENTURY":
  • 00:00:01.100 --> 00:00:04.060
  • SO, WHY IS SAYING THAT THE
  • 00:00:04.060 --> 00:00:05.120
  • EARTH IS 6.000 YEARS OLD ALMOST
  • 00:00:05.120 --> 00:00:07.000
  • LIKE A DIRTY WORD?
  • 00:00:07.000 --> 00:00:09.100
  • - DR. NATHANIEL JEANSON:
  • 00:00:09.100 --> 00:00:10.060
  • WITHIN YOU AND ME, AND EVERY
  • 00:00:10.060 --> 00:00:11.040
  • PERSON AROUND THE GLOBE, THERE
  • 00:00:11.040 --> 00:00:12.020
  • IS A SECRET GENETIC CLOCK
  • 00:00:12.020 --> 00:00:12.210
  • TICKING OFF THE TIME SINCE
  • 00:00:12.210 --> 00:00:13.280
  • HUMANITY FIRST DAWNED ON
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  • THIS PLANET.
  • 00:00:15.050 --> 00:00:18.050
  • - DAVID: SO, MANKIND IS
  • 00:00:18.050 --> 00:00:18.230
  • SLOWLY DETERIORATING.
  • 00:00:18.230 --> 00:00:19.260
  • WHAT DOES THE EVIDENCE SHOW?
  • 00:00:19.260 --> 00:00:22.140
  • - DR. JEANSON: WE HAVE WITHIN
  • 00:00:22.140 --> 00:00:23.270
  • OURSELVES THE SMOKING GUN OF
  • 00:00:23.270 --> 00:00:24.240
  • [DRAMATIC THEME MUSIC PLAYS]
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  • [MUSIC]
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  • [MUSIC]
  • 00:00:58.100 --> 00:01:01.120
  • - DAVID: I WANNA WELCOME YOU
  • 00:01:11.170 --> 00:01:12.260
  • TO "CREATION IN THE 21ST
  • 00:01:12.260 --> 00:01:14.150
  • CENTURY," WHERE SCIENTIFIC
  • 00:01:14.150 --> 00:01:16.180
  • DISCOVERY CONNECTS WITH
  • 00:01:16.180 --> 00:01:17.070
  • AND, FOR THE PAST TEN YEARS,
  • 00:01:22.090 --> 00:01:22.290
  • I'VE BEEN ON A JOURNEY
  • 00:01:22.290 --> 00:01:23.270
  • TO BRING PEOPLE CLOSER
  • 00:01:23.270 --> 00:01:24.200
  • TO CHRIST BY SHOWING THEM
  • 00:01:24.200 --> 00:01:25.180
  • NOW, YOU ARE NO ACCIDENT.
  • 00:01:29.010 --> 00:01:29.240
  • YOU ARE WONDERFULLY MADE.
  • 00:01:29.240 --> 00:01:31.190
  • AND, YOU SEE, THE CREATION
  • 00:01:31.190 --> 00:01:32.210
  • ACCOUNT THAT WE FIND ALL THE
  • 00:01:32.210 --> 00:01:33.130
  • WAY BACK IN GENESIS -- WELL,
  • 00:01:33.130 --> 00:01:34.130
  • THAT HOLDS KEYS TO UNLOCKING
  • 00:01:34.130 --> 00:01:35.200
  • AND UNDERSTANDING LIFE, DEATH,
  • 00:01:35.200 --> 00:01:36.140
  • AND WHY WE NEED A SAVIOR.
  • 00:01:36.140 --> 00:01:39.050
  • LET'S GET GOING.
  • 00:01:39.050 --> 00:01:41.110
  • AND WE'RE GONNA START THIS WEEK
  • 00:01:41.110 --> 00:01:42.110
  • BY TAKING A LOOK AT THE
  • 00:01:42.110 --> 00:01:43.120
  • HEAVENS DECLARE SEGMENT.
  • 00:01:43.120 --> 00:01:45.110
  • AND, TODAY, WE'RE GONNA LOOK AT
  • 00:01:45.110 --> 00:01:47.070
  • A CREATURE CALLED BEHEMOTH.
  • 00:01:47.070 --> 00:01:49.280
  • NOW, BEHEMOTH IS MENTIONED IN
  • 00:01:49.280 --> 00:01:50.270
  • THE BIBLE AND MANY PEOPLE HAVE
  • 00:01:50.270 --> 00:01:53.030
  • GUESSED WHAT THIS CREATURE
  • 00:01:53.030 --> 00:01:54.110
  • MIGHT HAVE BEEN.
  • 00:01:54.110 --> 00:01:55.200
  • IN THE BOOK OF JOB, YAHWEH, THE
  • 00:01:58.080 --> 00:01:59.170
  • CREATOR GOD, IS SPEAKING WITH
  • 00:01:59.170 --> 00:02:01.140
  • JOB AND HE SAYS:
  • 00:02:01.140 --> 00:02:04.050
  • "BEHOLD, NOW, BEHEMOTH, WHICH I
  • 00:02:04.050 --> 00:02:05.060
  • MADE WITH THEE; HE EATETH
  • 00:02:05.060 --> 00:02:06.010
  • GRASS, AS AN OX.
  • 00:02:06.010 --> 00:02:08.130
  • LO NOW, HIS STRENGTH IS IN HIS
  • 00:02:08.130 --> 00:02:10.070
  • LOINS AND HIS FORCE IS IN THE
  • 00:02:10.070 --> 00:02:11.260
  • NAVEL OF HIS BELLY.
  • 00:02:11.260 --> 00:02:13.180
  • HE MOVETH HIS TAIL LIKE A
  • 00:02:13.180 --> 00:02:14.230
  • CEDAR TREE.
  • 00:02:14.260 --> 00:02:17.260
  • THE SINEWS OF HIS STONES ARE
  • 00:02:17.260 --> 00:02:19.040
  • WRAPPED TOGETHER.
  • 00:02:19.040 --> 00:02:20.210
  • HIS BONES ARE AS STRONG PIECES
  • 00:02:20.210 --> 00:02:22.060
  • OF BRASS; HIS BONES ARE LIKE
  • 00:02:22.060 --> 00:02:23.150
  • BARS OF IRON.
  • 00:02:23.150 --> 00:02:26.090
  • HE IS THE CHIEF AMONG THE WAYS
  • 00:02:26.090 --> 00:02:27.220
  • OF GOD."
  • 00:02:27.220 --> 00:02:29.050
  • NOW, THROUGHOUT THE BOOK OF
  • 00:02:29.050 --> 00:02:29.290
  • JOB, WE MEET LOTS OF DIFFERENT
  • 00:02:29.290 --> 00:02:31.140
  • ANIMALS --
  • 00:02:31.140 --> 00:02:32.040
  • WILD GOATS,
  • 00:02:32.040 --> 00:02:33.120
  • PEACOCKS, OSTRICHES,
  • 00:02:33.120 --> 00:02:34.270
  • HORSES, HAWKS.
  • 00:02:34.270 --> 00:02:36.070
  • GOD USES EACH ANIMAL AS AN
  • 00:02:36.070 --> 00:02:39.010
  • ILLUSTRATION OF HIS POWER AS
  • 00:02:39.010 --> 00:02:41.030
  • THE CREATOR AND THE SUSTAINER.
  • 00:02:41.030 --> 00:02:43.070
  • SO, THESE WERE ALL ANIMALS THAT
  • 00:02:43.070 --> 00:02:45.060
  • JOB KNEW, OR ELSE THE POINT
  • 00:02:45.060 --> 00:02:46.280
  • WOULD HAVE BEEN WASTED,
  • 00:02:46.280 --> 00:02:47.260
  • WOULDN'T IT?
  • 00:02:47.260 --> 00:02:49.090
  • BUT WHAT WAS THIS MYSTERIOUS
  • 00:02:49.090 --> 00:02:50.070
  • BEHEMOTH?
  • 00:02:50.070 --> 00:02:51.170
  • COMMENTATORS THROUGHOUT THE
  • 00:02:51.170 --> 00:02:53.000
  • YEARS HAVE SUGGESTED THAT MAYBE
  • 00:02:53.000 --> 00:02:54.020
  • GOD WAS POINTING TO EITHER
  • 00:02:54.020 --> 00:02:55.160
  • ELEPHANTS OR POSSIBLY
  • 00:02:55.160 --> 00:02:56.070
  • HIPPOPOTAMUSES.
  • 00:02:56.070 --> 00:02:58.260
  • BUT WE MUST REMEMBER: THE BIBLE
  • 00:02:58.260 --> 00:03:00.120
  • COMMENTARIES AREN'T INSPIRED;
  • 00:03:00.120 --> 00:03:02.160
  • THE BIBLE ITSELF IS.
  • 00:03:02.160 --> 00:03:04.280
  • BUT THE ONLY CREATURE THAT WE
  • 00:03:04.280 --> 00:03:06.290
  • KNOW OF THAT SEEMS TO MATCH THE
  • 00:03:06.290 --> 00:03:07.280
  • DESCRIPTION OF BEHEMOTH
  • 00:03:07.280 --> 00:03:08.240
  • IS NOW EXTINCT.
  • 00:03:08.240 --> 00:03:10.290
  • IN THE FOSSIL RECORD, WE FIND
  • 00:03:10.290 --> 00:03:12.060
  • THE BONES OF MASSIVE CREATURES
  • 00:03:12.060 --> 00:03:13.160
  • THAT DWARF EVERYTHING ELSE
  • 00:03:13.160 --> 00:03:15.130
  • THAT GOD MADE.
  • 00:03:15.130 --> 00:03:17.290
  • THESE SAUROPODS, KNOWN AS
  • 00:03:17.290 --> 00:03:20.150
  • LONG-NECKED DINOSAURS, WERE
  • 00:03:20.150 --> 00:03:21.210
  • STRONG, THEY WERE POWERFUL, AND
  • 00:03:21.210 --> 00:03:22.130
  • THEY HAD MASSIVE TAILS.
  • 00:03:22.230 --> 00:03:25.230
  • IT APPEARS THAT GOD WAS
  • 00:03:25.230 --> 00:03:27.040
  • POINTING TO A SAUROPOD AND HE
  • 00:03:27.040 --> 00:03:28.190
  • WAS TELLING JOB TO TAKE NOTICE.
  • 00:03:28.190 --> 00:03:30.170
  • OUR CREATOR IS POWERFUL ENOUGH
  • 00:03:30.170 --> 00:03:32.160
  • TO EVEN CREATE THE MOST
  • 00:03:32.160 --> 00:03:34.060
  • MASSIVE OF BEASTS.
  • 00:03:34.260 --> 00:03:37.260
  • YOU KNOW, THERE'S ALSO A LESSON
  • 00:03:37.260 --> 00:03:38.180
  • FOR US AS CHRISTIANS TO LEARN
  • 00:03:38.180 --> 00:03:39.210
  • FROM THIS ACCOUNT.
  • 00:03:39.210 --> 00:03:41.250
  • IF GOD COULD CREATE SOMETHING
  • 00:03:41.250 --> 00:03:43.010
  • AS BIG AS BEHEMOTH...
  • 00:03:43.010 --> 00:03:45.130
  • WELL, THERE'S NOT A PROBLEM IN
  • 00:03:45.130 --> 00:03:46.210
  • THIS WORLD TOO BIG FOR
  • 00:03:46.210 --> 00:03:47.160
  • HIM TO HANDLE.
  • 00:03:47.160 --> 00:03:49.150
  • REMEMBER THAT AND BE
  • 00:03:49.150 --> 00:03:51.050
  • ENCOURAGED TODAY.
  • 00:03:51.050 --> 00:03:53.030
  • I'M DAVID RIVES.
  • 00:03:53.030 --> 00:03:54.230
  • TRULY, THE HEAVENS DECLARE THE
  • 00:03:54.230 --> 00:03:56.210
  • AND, NOW, LET'S MEET MY GUEST,
  • 00:04:01.250 --> 00:04:02.160
  • DR. NATHANIEL JEANSON.
  • 00:04:02.160 --> 00:04:04.290
  • HE HAS HIS PHD IN CELL AND
  • 00:04:04.290 --> 00:04:06.190
  • DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY FROM
  • 00:04:06.190 --> 00:04:08.160
  • HARVARD AND HE'S DONE ORIGINAL
  • 00:04:08.160 --> 00:04:09.250
  • LAB AND COMPUTATIONAL RESEARCH
  • 00:04:09.250 --> 00:04:11.020
  • FOR ALMOST 20 YEARS NOW.
  • 00:04:11.020 --> 00:04:12.180
  • HE'S LECTURED EXTENSIVELY ON
  • 00:04:12.180 --> 00:04:13.160
  • THE CREATION-EVOLUTION DEBATE
  • 00:04:13.160 --> 00:04:15.170
  • AND HAS CONTRIBUTED TO THE
  • 00:04:15.170 --> 00:04:16.090
  • SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY
  • 00:04:16.090 --> 00:04:17.160
  • WITH NUMEROUS PAPERS.
  • 00:04:17.160 --> 00:04:19.010
  • HE'S ALSO THE AUTHOR OF THE
  • 00:04:19.010 --> 00:04:19.230
  • WELCOME TO THE PROGRAM,
  • 00:04:23.010 --> 00:04:23.230
  • - DR. NATHANIEL JEANSON: THANK
  • 00:04:23.230 --> 00:04:24.150
  • YOU VERY MUCH, DAVID.
  • 00:04:24.150 --> 00:04:25.120
  • - DAVID: IT IS GREAT TO HAVE
  • 00:04:25.120 --> 00:04:26.030
  • YOU HERE AND GREAT TO HAVE YOU
  • 00:04:26.030 --> 00:04:28.200
  • SHARE SOME OF YOUR KNOWLEDGE
  • 00:04:28.200 --> 00:04:30.180
  • WITH THE WORLD THROUGH THIS
  • 00:04:30.180 --> 00:04:32.020
  • SHOW, BECAUSE, WE REALLY LOVE
  • 00:04:32.020 --> 00:04:32.230
  • WHAT YOU DO AT ANSWERS
  • 00:04:32.230 --> 00:04:34.150
  • IN GENESIS.
  • 00:04:34.150 --> 00:04:36.040
  • BRIEFLY, TELL ME: WHAT IS
  • 00:04:36.040 --> 00:04:38.050
  • - DR. JEANSON: WE ARE A
  • 00:04:42.040 --> 00:04:43.020
  • MINISTRY TO EQUIP CHRISTIANS
  • 00:04:43.020 --> 00:04:43.270
  • AND WE'RE PROBABLY BEST
  • 00:04:43.270 --> 00:04:44.150
  • KNOWN FOR OUR TWO MAJOR
  • 00:04:44.150 --> 00:04:45.060
  • ATTRACTIONS, THE CREATION
  • 00:04:45.060 --> 00:04:45.250
  • MUSEUM, THE ARK ENCOUNTER;
  • 00:04:45.250 --> 00:04:48.020
  • CREATION MUSEUM BEING BASICALLY
  • 00:04:48.020 --> 00:04:48.240
  • A CHRISTIAN
  • 00:04:48.240 --> 00:04:49.070
  • WALK THROUGH HISTORY --
  • 00:04:49.070 --> 00:04:50.270
  • ALL THAT COVERED
  • 00:04:52.290 --> 00:04:53.130
  • IN THIS MUSEUM.
  • 00:04:53.130 --> 00:04:54.050
  • ARK ENCOUNTER IS A FULL-SCALE,
  • 00:04:54.050 --> 00:04:55.260
  • LIFE-SIZED REPLICA OF NOAH'S
  • 00:04:55.260 --> 00:04:56.160
  • ARK BUILT TO THE
  • 00:04:56.160 --> 00:04:58.030
  • BIBLICAL DIMENSIONS.
  • 00:04:58.030 --> 00:04:58.270
  • THERE'S REALLY NO WAY TO
  • 00:04:58.270 --> 00:05:00.160
  • DESCRIBE IT, EXCEPT TO SAY THAT
  • 00:05:00.160 --> 00:05:01.230
  • YOU GOTTA STAND IN FRONT OF IT.
  • 00:05:01.230 --> 00:05:02.150
  • I'VE TRIED FOR YEARS
  • 00:05:02.150 --> 00:05:03.090
  • TO DESCRIBE IT.
  • 00:05:03.090 --> 00:05:04.000
  • AND JUST TO...BE NEXT TO IT --
  • 00:05:04.000 --> 00:05:05.100
  • IT'S AN AMAZING STRUCTURE.
  • 00:05:05.100 --> 00:05:06.160
  • - DAVID: I'VE STOOD THERE AND
  • 00:05:06.160 --> 00:05:07.150
  • IT IS -- IT'S SO MUCH
  • 00:05:07.150 --> 00:05:09.200
  • LARGER THAT LIFE.
  • 00:05:09.200 --> 00:05:11.250
  • BUT IT'S LIFE-SIZED, RIGHT?
  • 00:05:11.250 --> 00:05:12.290
  • SO, IT GIVES YOU THIS IDEA OF
  • 00:05:12.290 --> 00:05:13.200
  • JUST WHAT IT WOULD HAVE BEEN
  • 00:05:13.200 --> 00:05:15.260
  • LIKE TO STAND THERE WITH NOAH.
  • 00:05:15.260 --> 00:05:17.170
  • AND...YOU CAN JUST ALMOST
  • 00:05:17.170 --> 00:05:19.120
  • IMAGINE THE SITUATION.
  • 00:05:19.120 --> 00:05:21.120
  • NOAH DIDN'T KNOW EXACTLY
  • 00:05:21.120 --> 00:05:23.010
  • WHAT WAS GONNA HAPPEN.
  • 00:05:23.010 --> 00:05:23.280
  • HE HAD FAITH THAT GOD
  • 00:05:23.280 --> 00:05:25.100
  • WAS IN CONTROL.
  • 00:05:26.230 --> 00:05:29.230
  • AND IT ALL TURNED OUT PRETTY
  • 00:05:29.230 --> 00:05:30.130
  • WELL FOR HIM AND HIS FAMILY.
  • 00:05:30.130 --> 00:05:32.090
  • IN FACT, THE ANIMALS THAT
  • 00:05:32.090 --> 00:05:33.050
  • GOT OFF THE ARK --
  • 00:05:33.050 --> 00:05:36.000
  • WELL, WE SEE A LOT
  • 00:05:36.000 --> 00:05:36.200
  • OF VARIETY, TODAY.
  • 00:05:36.200 --> 00:05:38.180
  • AND YET, IF YOU WERE TO LOOK IN
  • 00:05:38.180 --> 00:05:39.270
  • YOUR BIOLOGY TEXTBOOKS, WELL,
  • 00:05:39.270 --> 00:05:41.220
  • IT WOULD SAY THAT THAT VARIETY
  • 00:05:41.220 --> 00:05:42.290
  • EVOLVED OVER MILLIONS UPON
  • 00:05:42.290 --> 00:05:45.160
  • MILLIONS OF YEARS.
  • 00:05:45.240 --> 00:05:48.240
  • AND THAT'S THE COMMON THOUGHT
  • 00:05:48.240 --> 00:05:49.170
  • PROCESS OF SO MANY
  • 00:05:49.170 --> 00:05:51.030
  • PEOPLE TODAY.
  • 00:05:51.030 --> 00:05:52.170
  • WHY DO YOU THINK THAT IS?
  • 00:05:53.140 --> 00:05:56.140
  • - DR. JEANSON: IT'S JUST
  • 00:05:56.140 --> 00:05:57.030
  • SO INGRAINED.
  • 00:05:57.030 --> 00:05:58.190
  • AND, IN FACT, THE FEW TIMES
  • 00:05:58.190 --> 00:05:59.230
  • I'VE GIVEN LECTURES IN BOSTON,
  • 00:05:59.230 --> 00:06:00.240
  • ONE OF THE CHURCHES THERE HAS
  • 00:06:00.240 --> 00:06:01.270
  • ASKED ME TO COME, AND THEY SAY,
  • 00:06:01.270 --> 00:06:02.230
  • "CAN YOU PLEASE MINIMIZE
  • 00:06:02.230 --> 00:06:03.180
  • TALKING ABOUT 6.000 YEARS?"
  • 00:06:03.180 --> 00:06:05.020
  • - DAVID: WOW.
  • 00:06:05.020 --> 00:06:05.210
  • - DR. JEANSON: "IT'S A DIRTY
  • 00:06:05.210 --> 00:06:06.120
  • WORD, UP HERE IN THE NORTHEAST.
  • 00:06:06.120 --> 00:06:07.290
  • YOU'LL TURN PEOPLE OFF.
  • 00:06:07.290 --> 00:06:09.030
  • IF WE CAN JUST GET THEM TO
  • 00:06:09.030 --> 00:06:09.230
  • QUESTION EVOLUTION, GET THEM IN
  • 00:06:09.230 --> 00:06:11.140
  • CHURCH, CENTERED IN BIBLICAL
  • 00:06:11.140 --> 00:06:12.220
  • TEACHING, THEY'LL BECOME
  • 00:06:12.220 --> 00:06:13.260
  • YOUNG-EARTH CREATIONISTS.
  • 00:06:13.260 --> 00:06:14.210
  • BUT, YOU SAY 6.000 YEARS --
  • 00:06:14.210 --> 00:06:15.120
  • END OF DISCUSSION.
  • 00:06:15.120 --> 00:06:16.240
  • THEY WALK OUT THE DOOR."
  • 00:06:16.240 --> 00:06:17.220
  • - DAVID: IS THAT RIGHT?
  • 00:06:17.220 --> 00:06:18.110
  • AND, AGAIN, I THINK IT'S THIS
  • 00:06:18.110 --> 00:06:21.040
  • WHOLE IDEA THAT...IF YOU SAY
  • 00:06:21.040 --> 00:06:22.270
  • 6.000 YEARS, WHICH IS ACTUALLY
  • 00:06:22.270 --> 00:06:24.030
  • WHAT HAPPENS IF YOU WERE TO ADD
  • 00:06:24.030 --> 00:06:26.270
  • UP ALL OF THE CHRONOLOGIES
  • 00:06:27.250 --> 00:06:30.250
  • MENTIONED IN THE BIBLE, WELL,
  • 00:06:30.250 --> 00:06:31.180
  • THEN, PEOPLE SAY: "UH-UH-UH,
  • 00:06:31.180 --> 00:06:34.120
  • I LEARNED IN MY SCIENCE CLASS
  • 00:06:34.120 --> 00:06:35.270
  • THAT THE EARTH IS ABOUT
  • 00:06:35.270 --> 00:06:36.230
  • 4.5 BILLION YEARS OLD.
  • 00:06:36.230 --> 00:06:39.020
  • I LEARNED THAT THE UNIVERSE IS
  • 00:06:39.020 --> 00:06:39.230
  • 14 BILLIONS YEARS OLD.
  • 00:06:41.140 --> 00:06:44.140
  • HOW IN THE WORLD CAN IT ONLY BE
  • 00:06:44.140 --> 00:06:45.100
  • 6.000 YEARS OLD AND STILL
  • 00:06:45.100 --> 00:06:46.100
  • MAINTAIN A SCIENTIFIC APPROACH?
  • 00:06:46.100 --> 00:06:48.240
  • IN FACT, WE ASKED PEOPLE ON THE
  • 00:06:48.240 --> 00:06:50.200
  • STREET THIS VERY QUESTION.
  • 00:06:50.200 --> 00:06:51.160
  • WE SAID: HOW OLD DO YOU THINK
  • 00:06:51.160 --> 00:06:52.070
  • THE EARTH IS?
  • 00:06:52.070 --> 00:06:53.090
  • [INDISTINCT CHATTER]
  • 00:06:56.040 --> 00:06:58.060
  • - VOICE OF WOMAN: I WANNA
  • 00:06:58.060 --> 00:06:58.250
  • - INTERVIEWEE: PANGAEA WAS
  • 00:07:01.150 --> 00:07:02.050
  • UM...ABOUT 4 OR 5 GAZILLION
  • 00:07:02.050 --> 00:07:03.080
  • YEARS OLD?
  • 00:07:03.080 --> 00:07:03.290
  • - INTERVIEWEE: TWO TO THREE
  • 00:07:03.290 --> 00:07:04.190
  • MILLION YEARS?
  • 00:07:04.190 --> 00:07:05.170
  • - INTERVIEWEE:
  • 00:07:05.170 --> 00:07:06.030
  • APPROXIMATELY...
  • 00:07:06.030 --> 00:07:07.170
  • 4-ISH-POINT-SOMETHING BILLION.
  • 00:07:07.170 --> 00:07:08.250
  • - INTERVIEWEE: I SHOULD
  • 00:07:08.250 --> 00:07:09.130
  • KNOW THAT.
  • 00:07:09.130 --> 00:07:09.270
  • BILLIONS.
  • 00:07:09.270 --> 00:07:11.140
  • - FEMALE VOICE(OFF-CAMERA):
  • 00:07:11.140 --> 00:07:12.190
  • MILLIONS.
  • 00:07:12.190 --> 00:07:13.070
  • - INTERVIEWEE: BILLIONS.
  • 00:07:13.070 --> 00:07:13.260
  • - INTERVIEWEE: GEE, I HAVE
  • 00:07:13.260 --> 00:07:14.160
  • NO IDEA.
  • 00:07:14.160 --> 00:07:14.260
  • THIRTY BILLION YEARS.
  • 00:07:14.260 --> 00:07:15.130
  • - INTERVIEWEE: UH...I HEARD
  • 00:07:15.130 --> 00:07:16.030
  • LIKE 10 MILLION OR SOMETHING.
  • 00:07:16.030 --> 00:07:17.020
  • - INTERVIEWER: OKAY.
  • 00:07:17.020 --> 00:07:17.260
  • - INTERVIEWEE: NAH, NOT
  • 00:07:17.260 --> 00:07:18.140
  • 10 MILLION.
  • 00:07:18.140 --> 00:07:19.020
  • LET'S GO WITH, UH...
  • 00:07:19.020 --> 00:07:20.000
  • HUNDRED MILLION.
  • 00:07:20.000 --> 00:07:20.270
  • - INTERVIEWEE: OH, GOSH.
  • 00:07:20.270 --> 00:07:22.180
  • UH...I'VE HEARD THE FAITH-BASED
  • 00:07:22.180 --> 00:07:23.230
  • THEORY, ANYWHERE FROM 6.000 TO
  • 00:07:23.230 --> 00:07:24.250
  • 38.000 YEARS, AND THE
  • 00:07:24.250 --> 00:07:26.100
  • SCIENTIFIC IDEAS, YOU KNOW,
  • 00:07:27.050 --> 00:07:30.050
  • 3 BILLION TO 4 BILLION.
  • 00:07:30.050 --> 00:07:32.230
  • SO, YOU CAN GO WITH EITHER
  • 00:07:32.230 --> 00:07:33.260
  • ANSWER DEPENDING ON WHAT YOU--
  • 00:07:33.260 --> 00:07:35.130
  • WHAT YOU-- WHAT YOU BELIEVE,
  • 00:07:35.130 --> 00:07:37.040
  • WHAT YOU FEEL.
  • 00:07:37.040 --> 00:07:37.180
  • SO...
  • 00:07:37.180 --> 00:07:38.000
  • - INTERVIEWEE: I THINK IT'S A
  • 00:07:38.000 --> 00:07:38.210
  • LITTLE UNDER 6.000 YEARS OLD.
  • 00:07:38.210 --> 00:07:40.060
  • - INTERVIEWEE: [LAUGH]
  • 00:07:40.060 --> 00:07:40.240
  • IT'S DEFINITELY NOT
  • 00:07:40.240 --> 00:07:41.100
  • 2.000 YEARS OLD.
  • 00:07:41.100 --> 00:07:42.000
  • [LAUGHS]
  • 00:07:42.000 --> 00:07:43.120
  • IT'S MILLIONS AND MILLIONS
  • 00:07:43.120 --> 00:07:44.010
  • OF YEARS OLD.
  • 00:07:44.010 --> 00:07:45.070
  • [LAUGHS]
  • 00:07:45.070 --> 00:07:46.210
  • - INTERVIEWEE: FOUR BILLION
  • 00:07:46.210 --> 00:07:47.110
  • YEARS OLD OR 3 BILLION?
  • 00:07:47.110 --> 00:07:48.030
  • IT'S VERY, VERY OLD.
  • 00:07:48.030 --> 00:07:49.110
  • IT'S DEFINITELY NOT 4.000
  • 00:07:49.110 --> 00:07:50.250
  • YEARS OLD.
  • 00:07:50.250 --> 00:07:51.160
  • [LAUGHS]
  • 00:07:51.160 --> 00:07:52.190
  • - INTERVIEWEE (RIGHT): FOUR
  • 00:07:52.190 --> 00:07:53.170
  • THOUSAND FIVE HUNDRED...YEARS.
  • 00:07:53.170 --> 00:07:55.080
  • - INTERVIEWEE (LEFT): UM...I
  • 00:07:55.080 --> 00:07:56.030
  • - DAVID: YOU KNOW, THOSE--
  • 00:08:03.190 --> 00:08:06.060
  • THOSE ANSWERS WERE KIND
  • 00:08:06.060 --> 00:08:06.240
  • OF ALL OVER.
  • 00:08:06.240 --> 00:08:07.290
  • UM...
  • 00:08:07.290 --> 00:08:08.130
  • - DR. JEANSON: PRETTY
  • 00:08:08.130 --> 00:08:09.000
  • SCATTERED SHOTS.
  • 00:08:09.000 --> 00:08:09.290
  • [LAUGHS]
  • 00:08:09.290 --> 00:08:10.290
  • - DAVID: THEY WERE PRETTY
  • 00:08:10.290 --> 00:08:12.240
  • SCATTERED.
  • 00:08:12.240 --> 00:08:13.200
  • [LAUGHTER]
  • 00:08:13.200 --> 00:08:14.020
  • THERE WAS ONE WHO GOT THE
  • 00:08:14.020 --> 00:08:14.210
  • SECULAR THEORY CORRECT.
  • 00:08:14.210 --> 00:08:15.090
  • HE SAID, "FOUR-POINT-SOMETHING
  • 00:08:15.090 --> 00:08:16.100
  • BILLION YEARS OLD."
  • 00:08:16.100 --> 00:08:18.130
  • AND THEN, THERE WAS ONE WHO
  • 00:08:18.130 --> 00:08:20.070
  • ACTUALLY-- I-I-- I LOVE
  • 00:08:20.070 --> 00:08:20.250
  • THIS DESIGNATION.
  • 00:08:20.250 --> 00:08:23.050
  • BECAUSE HE SAID: "WELL, IF YOU
  • 00:08:23.050 --> 00:08:23.260
  • GO WITH THE FAITH-BASED THEORY,
  • 00:08:23.260 --> 00:08:25.210
  • WELL, THEN, THOUSANDS OF
  • 00:08:25.210 --> 00:08:27.010
  • YEARS OLD.
  • 00:08:27.010 --> 00:08:28.220
  • IF YOU GO WITH SCIENCE, WELL,
  • 00:08:28.220 --> 00:08:30.060
  • THEN, MILLIONS AND BILLIONS."
  • 00:08:30.060 --> 00:08:31.080
  • RIGHT?
  • 00:08:31.080 --> 00:08:32.140
  • BUT HOW DO THE SCIENTISTS COME
  • 00:08:32.140 --> 00:08:34.290
  • UP WITH MILLIONS AND BILLIONS
  • 00:08:34.290 --> 00:08:37.130
  • OF YEARS FOR THE AGE
  • 00:08:37.130 --> 00:08:38.060
  • OF THE EARTH?
  • 00:08:38.060 --> 00:08:39.240
  • - DR. JEANSON: I THINK PART OF
  • 00:08:39.240 --> 00:08:40.160
  • THE CHALLENGE IN THIS QUESTION
  • 00:08:40.160 --> 00:08:41.170
  • IS THERE'S SO MUCH
  • 00:08:41.170 --> 00:08:42.220
  • MATH INVOLVED...
  • 00:08:42.220 --> 00:08:43.200
  • - DAVID: MM-HMM.
  • 00:08:43.200 --> 00:08:44.050
  • - DR. JEANSON: ...PEOPLE
  • 00:08:44.050 --> 00:08:44.240
  • JUST GO WITH WHAT...
  • 00:08:44.240 --> 00:08:45.130
  • AUTHORITIES TELL THEM.
  • 00:08:45.130 --> 00:08:46.060
  • - DAVID: OKAY.
  • 00:08:46.060 --> 00:08:47.190
  • - DR. JEANSON: BUT, WHAT I
  • 00:08:47.190 --> 00:08:48.150
  • LIKE TO DO IS SORT OF PULL AWAY
  • 00:08:48.150 --> 00:08:50.070
  • THE VENEER OF THIS AND LOOK
  • 00:08:50.070 --> 00:08:51.220
  • AT...WHAT EXACTLY IS GOING ON.
  • 00:08:51.220 --> 00:08:54.120
  • BECAUSE YOU CAN BOIL IT DOWN TO
  • 00:08:54.120 --> 00:08:56.030
  • SOME PRETTY BASIC PRINCIPLES
  • 00:08:56.030 --> 00:08:57.150
  • THAT UNDERGIRD THE
  • 00:08:57.150 --> 00:08:58.270
  • ENTIRE EDIFICE.
  • 00:08:58.270 --> 00:09:00.280
  • AND IF YOU UNDERSTAND THAT AND
  • 00:09:00.280 --> 00:09:02.020
  • UNDERSTAND SOME OF THE MORE
  • 00:09:02.020 --> 00:09:03.140
  • RECENT DISCOVERIES, THE WHOLE
  • 00:09:03.140 --> 00:09:04.140
  • EDIFICE COMES CRASHING DOWN.
  • 00:09:04.140 --> 00:09:05.050
  • - DAVID: OKAY.
  • 00:09:05.050 --> 00:09:06.000
  • - DR. JEANSON: AND EVEN THOUGH
  • 00:09:06.000 --> 00:09:06.230
  • IT'S...CULTURAL PARIAH --
  • 00:09:06.230 --> 00:09:08.010
  • "YOU'RE A WEIRDO IF YOU BELIEVE
  • 00:09:08.010 --> 00:09:10.020
  • 6.000 YEARS" -- NO, IT'S REALLY
  • 00:09:10.020 --> 00:09:11.160
  • STRONGLY SUPPORTED
  • 00:09:11.160 --> 00:09:13.140
  • SCIENTIFICALLY.
  • 00:09:13.140 --> 00:09:14.190
  • - DAVID: YOU ARE, ACTUALLY,
  • 00:09:14.190 --> 00:09:15.240
  • AND WE SAW THAT, EVEN WITHIN
  • 00:09:15.240 --> 00:09:16.210
  • SOME OF THE RESPONSES.
  • 00:09:16.210 --> 00:09:17.080
  • "IT'S CERTAINLY NOT ONLY
  • 00:09:17.080 --> 00:09:19.000
  • THOUSANDS OF YEARS.
  • 00:09:19.000 --> 00:09:19.160
  • IT HAS TO BE MILLIONS OR
  • 00:09:19.160 --> 00:09:20.140
  • BUT, AGAIN, I THINK THE
  • 00:09:24.130 --> 00:09:25.290
  • POINT THAT WE MIGHT DRIVE HOME
  • 00:09:25.290 --> 00:09:27.290
  • IS THAT SECULAR THEORIES ON THE
  • 00:09:27.290 --> 00:09:30.020
  • AGE OF THE EARTH ARE ALSO
  • 00:09:30.020 --> 00:09:31.110
  • FAITH-BASED THEORIES, FOR THE
  • 00:09:31.110 --> 00:09:32.130
  • MOST PART.
  • 00:09:32.130 --> 00:09:33.020
  • THEY'RE BASED ON ASSUMPTIONS
  • 00:09:33.020 --> 00:09:35.030
  • THAT...MANY TIMES
  • 00:09:35.030 --> 00:09:36.130
  • ARE UNTESTABLE.
  • 00:09:36.130 --> 00:09:37.140
  • - DR. JEANSON: AND THE ISSUE
  • 00:09:37.140 --> 00:09:38.210
  • MATTERS, BECAUSE, IF YOU PUT
  • 00:09:38.210 --> 00:09:39.220
  • MILLIONS OF YEARS AS THE TEXT
  • 00:09:39.220 --> 00:09:41.250
  • OF SCRIPTURE, YOU'RE PUTTING
  • 00:09:41.250 --> 00:09:42.150
  • DEATH AND SUFFERING, YOU'RE
  • 00:09:42.150 --> 00:09:43.050
  • PUTTING BLOODSHED AND DISEASE,
  • 00:09:43.050 --> 00:09:43.260
  • YOU'RE PUTTING ALL SORTS
  • 00:09:43.260 --> 00:09:45.200
  • OF...BAD THINGS, LONG BEFORE
  • 00:09:45.200 --> 00:09:46.240
  • AND NOW, YOU HAVE TO ASK THE
  • 00:09:50.000 --> 00:09:50.200
  • QUESTION: WHAT DOES THE WHOLE
  • 00:09:50.200 --> 00:09:51.230
  • REST OF SCRIPTURE MEAN?
  • 00:09:51.230 --> 00:09:52.180
  • IN THIS DISCUSSION OF MILLIONS
  • 00:09:52.180 --> 00:09:54.030
  • OF YEARS, ALL YOU NEED TO KNOW
  • 00:09:54.030 --> 00:09:55.070
  • IS THAT THEY'RE LOOKING
  • 00:09:55.070 --> 00:09:55.280
  • FOR A CLOCK.
  • 00:09:55.280 --> 00:09:57.000
  • WHAT'S A CLOCK?
  • 00:09:57.000 --> 00:09:57.150
  • IT'S A TIMEKEEPER.
  • 00:09:57.150 --> 00:09:58.090
  • AND THE WAY YOU KEEP TIME IS
  • 00:09:58.090 --> 00:09:59.090
  • SOMETHING CHANGES.
  • 00:09:59.090 --> 00:10:01.040
  • I MEAN, WE MIGHT LOOK AT OUR
  • 00:10:01.040 --> 00:10:02.050
  • WATCHES AND WE WATCH THE SECOND
  • 00:10:02.050 --> 00:10:03.010
  • HAND MOVE OR...SOMETHING
  • 00:10:03.010 --> 00:10:04.030
  • PROGRESSES.
  • 00:10:04.030 --> 00:10:06.000
  • AND THAT'S HOW WE MEASURE TIME.
  • 00:10:06.000 --> 00:10:06.220
  • THAT'S THE PRINCIPLE, THEN,
  • 00:10:06.220 --> 00:10:08.180
  • THAT'S APPLIED INTO A VARIETY
  • 00:10:08.180 --> 00:10:09.240
  • OF FIELDS OF SCIENCE.
  • 00:10:09.240 --> 00:10:11.220
  • WE TYPICALLY THINK -- AT LEAST,
  • 00:10:11.220 --> 00:10:13.020
  • I THINK OF IT IN THE MODERN ERA
  • 00:10:13.020 --> 00:10:15.030
  • -- AND ONE OF THE MAIN
  • 00:10:15.030 --> 00:10:16.090
  • QUESTIONS I GET AS A
  • 00:10:16.090 --> 00:10:16.250
  • CREATIONIST -- "WELL, HOW DO
  • 00:10:16.250 --> 00:10:17.210
  • YOU EXPLAIN LIGHT FROM
  • 00:10:17.210 --> 00:10:18.090
  • DISTANT STARS?"
  • 00:10:18.090 --> 00:10:19.200
  • IT'S USUALLY SOME ASTRONOMICAL
  • 00:10:19.200 --> 00:10:20.110
  • OR GEOLOGIC QUESTION 'CAUSE
  • 00:10:20.110 --> 00:10:21.080
  • THAT'S WHAT'S DOMINATED THE
  • 00:10:21.080 --> 00:10:22.220
  • DISCUSSION FOR 200 YEARS.
  • 00:10:22.220 --> 00:10:24.130
  • WHAT I LEARNED RECENTLY,
  • 00:10:24.130 --> 00:10:25.260
  • THOUGH, IS...IN THE
  • 00:10:25.260 --> 00:10:27.060
  • ASTRONOMICAL REALM, FOR
  • 00:10:27.220 --> 00:10:30.220
  • MOST OF HISTORY,
  • 00:10:30.220 --> 00:10:31.230
  • RECENT HISTORY, AT LEAST,
  • 00:10:31.230 --> 00:10:33.210
  • MILLIONS OF YEARS IS NOT PART
  • 00:10:33.210 --> 00:10:35.090
  • OF THE EQUATION.
  • 00:10:35.090 --> 00:10:35.250
  • PEOPLE LOOKED AT THE UNIVERSE.
  • 00:10:35.250 --> 00:10:37.010
  • IT'S JUST SO VAST.
  • 00:10:37.010 --> 00:10:37.290
  • IT MUST HAVE GONE ON
  • 00:10:37.290 --> 00:10:39.010
  • FOR ETERNITY.
  • 00:10:39.100 --> 00:10:42.100
  • SO, HOW CAN YOU TALK ABOUT
  • 00:10:42.100 --> 00:10:42.290
  • TIME IF THE UNIVERSE
  • 00:10:42.290 --> 00:10:43.160
  • IS TIMELESS?
  • 00:10:43.160 --> 00:10:45.000
  • AND IT WAS ONLY RECENTLY, WITH
  • 00:10:45.000 --> 00:10:45.280
  • THE DISCOVERY OF THE UNIVERSE'S
  • 00:10:45.280 --> 00:10:46.200
  • EXPANSION, THAT...PEOPLE BEGAN
  • 00:10:46.200 --> 00:10:47.250
  • TO ASSIGN TIMESTAMPS TO THIS
  • 00:10:47.250 --> 00:10:50.100
  • AND SAY: NO, THERE'S CLOCK-LIKE
  • 00:10:50.100 --> 00:10:51.230
  • BEHAVIOR IN THE UNIVERSE.
  • 00:10:51.230 --> 00:10:54.120
  • SOMETHING IS CHANGING AND WE
  • 00:10:54.120 --> 00:10:55.170
  • CAN MEASURE HOW LONG
  • 00:10:55.170 --> 00:10:56.270
  • IT'S HAPPENED.
  • 00:10:56.270 --> 00:10:57.150
  • SO, OFTEN, THEY TALK ABOUT THE
  • 00:10:57.150 --> 00:10:58.060
  • EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE.
  • 00:10:58.060 --> 00:10:59.140
  • IT'S GETTING BIGGER.
  • 00:10:59.140 --> 00:11:00.140
  • AND I LIKE TO THINK OF, UH, AN
  • 00:11:00.140 --> 00:11:01.060
  • ANALOGY TO UNDERSTAND THIS.
  • 00:11:01.060 --> 00:11:03.090
  • SO, IF I WAS SIGNIFICANTLY
  • 00:11:03.090 --> 00:11:06.010
  • LARGER THAN I AM, RIGHT NOW,
  • 00:11:06.010 --> 00:11:07.220
  • AND, YOU HAD WALKED INTO THE
  • 00:11:07.220 --> 00:11:09.070
  • ROOM AND THERE WAS A PLATE OF
  • 00:11:09.070 --> 00:11:10.180
  • BROWNIES SITTING HERE ON
  • 00:11:10.180 --> 00:11:11.110
  • THE TABLE...
  • 00:11:11.110 --> 00:11:12.150
  • - DAVID: (AMUSED TONE) MM-HMM!
  • 00:11:12.150 --> 00:11:13.100
  • - DR. JEANSON: AND CHOCOLATE
  • 00:11:13.100 --> 00:11:14.010
  • SMEARED ON MY CHEEK AND CRUMBS
  • 00:11:14.010 --> 00:11:14.220
  • DOWN MY SHIRT, YOU WOULD,
  • 00:11:14.220 --> 00:11:17.000
  • UH...IMMEDIATELY HAVE A
  • 00:11:17.000 --> 00:11:18.020
  • HYPOTHESIS AS TO WHY I WAS
  • 00:11:18.020 --> 00:11:19.170
  • LARGER THAN PERHAPS YOU KNEW ME
  • 00:11:19.170 --> 00:11:21.020
  • A COUPLE YEARS EARLIER OR
  • 00:11:21.020 --> 00:11:22.090
  • MAYBE YOU DON'T KNOW IT, BUT
  • 00:11:24.240 --> 00:11:25.140
  • WHEN I WAS SMALLER-- I
  • 00:11:25.140 --> 00:11:26.160
  • OBVIOUSLY WAS SMALLER, AT
  • 00:11:26.160 --> 00:11:27.050
  • SOME POINT.
  • 00:11:27.050 --> 00:11:27.170
  • YOU COULD TRY TO CALCULATE WHEN
  • 00:11:27.170 --> 00:11:28.090
  • I WAS SMALLER, 50 POUNDS
  • 00:11:28.090 --> 00:11:29.090
  • LIGHTER, BY SAYING: HOW FAST
  • 00:11:29.090 --> 00:11:30.050
  • ARE YOU CONSUMING
  • 00:11:30.050 --> 00:11:31.130
  • THOSE BROWNIES?
  • 00:11:31.130 --> 00:11:32.110
  • HOW MUCH CHOCOLATE IS ON
  • 00:11:32.110 --> 00:11:33.060
  • HOW LONG HAS IT BEEN THERE?
  • 00:11:35.040 --> 00:11:35.240
  • WHAT'S BEEN CHANGING ABOUT YOU
  • 00:11:35.240 --> 00:11:36.150
  • TO EXPAND YOUR WAISTLINE?
  • 00:11:36.150 --> 00:11:37.200
  • [DAVID LAUGHS]
  • 00:11:37.200 --> 00:11:38.250
  • THAT'S THE IDEA THEY'RE
  • 00:11:38.250 --> 00:11:40.060
  • APPLYING TO THE UNIVERSE.
  • 00:11:40.060 --> 00:11:40.250
  • - DAVID: OKAY.
  • 00:11:40.250 --> 00:11:41.290
  • - DR. JEANSON: HOW BIG IS THE
  • 00:11:41.290 --> 00:11:42.200
  • UNIVERSE, CURRENTLY?
  • 00:11:42.200 --> 00:11:43.210
  • HOW BIG IS MY GIRTH, CURRENTLY?
  • 00:11:43.210 --> 00:11:44.230
  • [DAVID LAUGHS]
  • 00:11:44.230 --> 00:11:45.270
  • HOW FAST IS IT GETTIN' BIGGER?
  • 00:11:45.270 --> 00:11:47.030
  • AND SO, THEN, YOU JUST GO
  • 00:11:47.030 --> 00:11:48.050
  • BACKWARDS AND SAY: WHEN DID IT
  • 00:11:48.050 --> 00:11:48.280
  • FIRST START EXPANDING?
  • 00:11:48.280 --> 00:11:50.230
  • - DAVID: OOOOKAY.
  • 00:11:50.230 --> 00:11:51.080
  • - DR. JEANSON: SO, THEY SAY
  • 00:11:51.080 --> 00:11:51.280
  • THAT WE KNOW THE UNIVERSE IS
  • 00:11:51.280 --> 00:11:53.080
  • GIGANTIC, WE CAN MEASURE THE
  • 00:11:53.080 --> 00:11:53.280
  • RATE AT WHICH IT'S EXPANDING,
  • 00:11:53.280 --> 00:11:54.190
  • AND IT GIVES YOU...
  • 00:11:54.190 --> 00:11:55.190
  • BILLIONS OF YEARS.
  • 00:11:55.190 --> 00:11:56.250
  • IT'S REALLY JUST ONE
  • 00:11:56.250 --> 00:11:57.160
  • MATH EQUATION.
  • 00:11:57.160 --> 00:11:58.240
  • THE DIFFERENCE, THE DISTANCE IS
  • 00:11:58.240 --> 00:12:00.070
  • A FUNCTION OF THE RATE,
  • 00:12:00.070 --> 00:12:01.260
  • MULTIPLIED BY THE TIMES.
  • 00:12:01.260 --> 00:12:03.030
  • IF YOU KNOW HOW BIG IT IS, HOW
  • 00:12:03.030 --> 00:12:04.050
  • FAST IT'S EXPANDING, YOU CAN
  • 00:12:04.050 --> 00:12:06.110
  • CALCULATE HOW LONG AGO, THE
  • 00:12:06.110 --> 00:12:07.160
  • TIME ELEMENT OF THIS EQUATION.
  • 00:12:07.160 --> 00:12:09.270
  • - DAVID: SO, VERY QUICKLY,
  • 00:12:09.270 --> 00:12:11.190
  • THERE WAS AN ASTRONOMER, BY THE
  • 00:12:11.190 --> 00:12:13.290
  • NAME OF VESTO SLIPHER, WHO
  • 00:12:13.290 --> 00:12:15.000
  • OBSERVED THAT THE UNIVERSE
  • 00:12:15.000 --> 00:12:16.270
  • SEEMED TO BE EXPANDING.
  • 00:12:16.270 --> 00:12:18.270
  • HE DIDN'T REALLY REALIZE
  • 00:12:18.270 --> 00:12:19.150
  • THE IMPLICATIONS.
  • 00:12:19.150 --> 00:12:20.000
  • ANOTHER MAN CAME ALONG, A
  • 00:12:20.000 --> 00:12:20.280
  • BELGIAN JESUIT PRIEST BY THE
  • 00:12:20.280 --> 00:12:22.110
  • NAME OF GEORGES LEMAÎTRE, AND
  • 00:12:22.110 --> 00:12:24.000
  • HE SAID: YEAH...WE COULD LOOK
  • 00:12:24.000 --> 00:12:26.010
  • AT THIS AS BASICALLY THE
  • 00:12:26.010 --> 00:12:27.080
  • UNIVERSE BEING STRETCHED OUT.
  • 00:12:28.240 --> 00:12:31.240
  • AND, OH, A LIGHT BULB, WHICH
  • 00:12:31.240 --> 00:12:33.040
  • MEANS THAT IF WE JUST LINEARLY
  • 00:12:33.040 --> 00:12:33.250
  • PUT IT ALL BACK TOGETHER AGAIN,
  • 00:12:33.250 --> 00:12:35.140
  • WE CAN FIGURE OUT WHEN THE
  • 00:12:35.140 --> 00:12:36.240
  • UNIVERSE WAS A SINGLE SPECK --
  • 00:12:36.240 --> 00:12:38.290
  • OR, AS HE CALLED IT,
  • 00:12:38.290 --> 00:12:40.130
  • A COSMIC EGG.
  • 00:12:40.130 --> 00:12:41.290
  • MAKES SENSE IF YOU'RE JUST...ON
  • 00:12:41.290 --> 00:12:43.150
  • A BROAD SENSE.
  • 00:12:43.150 --> 00:12:44.290
  • BUT THERE ARE ASSUMPTIONS
  • 00:12:44.290 --> 00:12:46.090
  • INVOLVED.
  • 00:12:46.090 --> 00:12:47.220
  • - DR. JEANSON: EXACTLY.
  • 00:12:47.220 --> 00:12:48.290
  • AND, THOSE TYPE OF ASSUMPTIONS
  • 00:12:48.290 --> 00:12:51.190
  • UNDERGIRD NOT JUST ASTRONOMY
  • 00:12:51.190 --> 00:12:52.090
  • BUT ALSO GEOLOGY.
  • 00:12:52.090 --> 00:12:54.150
  • AND...AND MAYBE, AT LEAST IN
  • 00:12:54.150 --> 00:12:55.290
  • THE UNITED STATES, THIS SHOWS
  • 00:12:55.290 --> 00:12:56.260
  • UP IN THE PUBLIC CONSCIOUSNESS
  • 00:12:56.260 --> 00:12:58.270
  • WHEN YOU GO TO FAVORITE SITES
  • 00:12:58.270 --> 00:13:01.270
  • LIKE THE GRAND CANYON AND YOU
  • 00:13:01.270 --> 00:13:02.180
  • SEE THE SIGNS, AND IT'S
  • 00:13:02.180 --> 00:13:03.230
  • BILLIONS OF YEARS OLD, AND "HOW
  • 00:13:03.230 --> 00:13:05.050
  • COULD THIS HAVE FORMED
  • 00:13:05.050 --> 00:13:06.060
  • QUICKLY?" AND THOSE TYPES OF
  • 00:13:06.060 --> 00:13:07.050
  • THINGS ARISE.
  • 00:13:07.070 --> 00:13:10.070
  • BUT, THEY'RE ALL BASED ON THE
  • 00:13:10.070 --> 00:13:11.080
  • SAME PRINCIPLE.
  • 00:13:11.080 --> 00:13:11.230
  • SOMETHING'S CHANGING.
  • 00:13:11.230 --> 00:13:12.170
  • YOU MEASURE SOME SORT OF
  • 00:13:12.170 --> 00:13:13.170
  • DIFFERENCE, YOU MEASURE THE
  • 00:13:13.170 --> 00:13:14.230
  • RATE, YOU CAN CALCULATE TIME.
  • 00:13:14.230 --> 00:13:16.070
  • SO, IF YOU'RE LOOKING AT THE
  • 00:13:16.070 --> 00:13:17.040
  • GRAND CANYON AND YOU SEE THE
  • 00:13:17.040 --> 00:13:18.290
  • COLORADO RIVER'S FLOWING
  • 00:13:18.290 --> 00:13:20.050
  • THROUGH IT, IT'S SLOWLY
  • 00:13:20.050 --> 00:13:21.190
  • ERODING, HARD TO MEASURE IN--
  • 00:13:21.190 --> 00:13:24.180
  • FOR THE LAY PERSON, HARD TO SEE
  • 00:13:24.180 --> 00:13:25.120
  • SOMETHING CHANGING.
  • 00:13:25.120 --> 00:13:26.210
  • BUT, IT'S EVER SO GRADUAL.
  • 00:13:26.210 --> 00:13:29.060
  • AND YOU SAY: OH, THE CANYON'S
  • 00:13:29.060 --> 00:13:30.030
  • REALLY DEEP.
  • 00:13:30.030 --> 00:13:30.210
  • SO, IF IT STARTED WITH A RIVER
  • 00:13:30.210 --> 00:13:32.180
  • UP HERE...
  • 00:13:32.180 --> 00:13:33.080
  • - DAVID: MM-HMM...
  • 00:13:33.080 --> 00:13:34.070
  • - DR. JEANSON: ...AND IT'S
  • 00:13:34.070 --> 00:13:35.170
  • BEEN SLOWLY ERODING AWAY AND WE
  • 00:13:35.170 --> 00:13:36.190
  • CAN MEASURE HOW FAST, WELL, THE
  • 00:13:36.190 --> 00:13:37.240
  • DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TOP AND
  • 00:13:37.240 --> 00:13:38.220
  • BOTTOM IS THIS...LARGE HEIGHT.
  • 00:13:38.220 --> 00:13:40.180
  • THE EROSION RATE IS
  • 00:13:40.180 --> 00:13:41.090
  • REALLY SLOW.
  • 00:13:41.090 --> 00:13:42.110
  • THIS IS GONNA TAKE A LONG TIME
  • 00:13:42.110 --> 00:13:43.020
  • FOR THIS CANYON TO ERODE.
  • 00:13:43.020 --> 00:13:44.250
  • - DAVID: FOR ONE VERTICAL MILE
  • 00:13:44.250 --> 00:13:45.180
  • OF EROSION TO TAKE PLACE.
  • 00:13:45.180 --> 00:13:46.280
  • - DR. JEANSON: EXACTLY.
  • 00:13:46.280 --> 00:13:47.260
  • - DAVID: YEAH.
  • 00:13:47.260 --> 00:13:48.290
  • - DR. JEANSON: AND SO, THESE
  • 00:13:48.290 --> 00:13:50.090
  • TYPES OF THINGS ARE WHAT...LEAD
  • 00:13:50.090 --> 00:13:53.040
  • MAINSTREAM SCIENTISTS TO SAY:
  • 00:13:53.040 --> 00:13:54.160
  • THERE'S NO WAY YOU COULD PACK
  • 00:13:54.160 --> 00:13:55.110
  • ALL THIS IN, IN JUST
  • 00:13:55.110 --> 00:13:56.060
  • 6.000 YEARS.
  • 00:13:56.060 --> 00:13:56.280
  • THERE HAS TO BE A GIGANTIC
  • 00:13:56.280 --> 00:13:57.260
  • HISTORY FOR THE EARTH,
  • 00:13:57.260 --> 00:13:59.080
  • FOR THE UNIVERSE.
  • 00:13:59.080 --> 00:14:01.050
  • AND, NOW, THIS HAS JUST BECOME
  • 00:14:01.050 --> 00:14:02.260
  • ESTABLISHED FACT, WHERE, IF YOU
  • 00:14:02.260 --> 00:14:03.200
  • QUESTION IT, YOU'RE ONE OF
  • 00:14:03.200 --> 00:14:04.100
  • THOSE WACKOS AND--
  • 00:14:04.100 --> 00:14:05.220
  • - DAVID: YES.
  • 00:14:05.220 --> 00:14:06.070
  • - DR. JEANSON: --LET'S CHANGE
  • 00:14:06.070 --> 00:14:06.280
  • THE SUBJECT.
  • 00:14:06.280 --> 00:14:07.100
  • - DAVID: YEAH.
  • 00:14:07.100 --> 00:14:08.010
  • - DR. JEANSON: WHAT I
  • 00:14:08.010 --> 00:14:09.100
  • DISCOVERED-- SO, I'M A
  • 00:14:09.100 --> 00:14:09.270
  • BIOLOGIST BY TRAINING,
  • 00:14:09.270 --> 00:14:11.210
  • NOT A GEOLOGIST OR
  • 00:14:11.210 --> 00:14:12.060
  • AN ASTRONOMER.
  • 00:14:12.060 --> 00:14:14.050
  • BUT SOMETHING THAT'S ARISEN
  • 00:14:14.050 --> 00:14:15.060
  • WITHIN THE LAST FEW YEARS IS
  • 00:14:15.180 --> 00:14:18.180
  • THE DISCOVERY THAT
  • 00:14:18.180 --> 00:14:19.030
  • GENETICS CHANGES.
  • 00:14:19.030 --> 00:14:20.240
  • - DAVID: OKAY!
  • 00:14:20.240 --> 00:14:21.240
  • - DR. JEANSON: BEFORE I GET
  • 00:14:21.240 --> 00:14:22.170
  • THERE, SOMETHING TO REALIZE
  • 00:14:22.170 --> 00:14:23.130
  • ABOUT GEOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY --
  • 00:14:23.130 --> 00:14:24.130
  • AND I HEAR THIS A LOT FROM MY
  • 00:14:24.130 --> 00:14:25.190
  • EVOLUTIONARY COLLEAGUES, FROM
  • 00:14:25.190 --> 00:14:26.250
  • THOSE WHO CRITICIZE CREATION.
  • 00:14:26.250 --> 00:14:28.150
  • THEY SAY: IF YOU WANNA QUESTION
  • 00:14:28.150 --> 00:14:30.010
  • ONE LINE OF EVIDENCE, FINE.
  • 00:14:30.010 --> 00:14:31.090
  • THAT WORKS FOR YOU.
  • 00:14:31.090 --> 00:14:32.190
  • BUT, IT DOESN'T WORK
  • 00:14:32.190 --> 00:14:34.050
  • SCIENTIFICALLY.
  • 00:14:34.050 --> 00:14:35.080
  • 'CAUSE THERE'S MULTIPLE
  • 00:14:35.080 --> 00:14:35.280
  • INDEPENDENT LINES OF EVIDENCE.
  • 00:14:35.280 --> 00:14:37.170
  • ASTRONOMY, GEOLOGY.
  • 00:14:37.170 --> 00:14:38.110
  • MULTIPLE LINES OF EVIDENCE
  • 00:14:38.110 --> 00:14:39.250
  • IN GEOLOGY.
  • 00:14:39.250 --> 00:14:40.250
  • MULTIPLE LINES OF EVIDENCE...
  • 00:14:40.250 --> 00:14:41.180
  • - BOTH: IN ASTRONOMY.
  • 00:14:41.180 --> 00:14:42.120
  • - DR. JEANSON: AND, TOGETHER,
  • 00:14:42.120 --> 00:14:43.120
  • THIS LARGE LIST OF FACTS--
  • 00:14:43.120 --> 00:14:45.060
  • - DAVID: BODY OF FACTS.
  • 00:14:45.060 --> 00:14:45.260
  • - DR. JEANSON: --YOU'RE JUST--
  • 00:14:45.260 --> 00:14:46.230
  • YOU EITHER GOTTA
  • 00:14:46.230 --> 00:14:47.200
  • BE...HYPERCOMMITTED
  • 00:14:47.200 --> 00:14:49.120
  • RELIGIOUSLY...
  • 00:14:49.120 --> 00:14:49.290
  • - DAVID: RIGHT.
  • 00:14:49.290 --> 00:14:50.180
  • - DR. JEANSON: ...SO YOU JUST
  • 00:14:50.180 --> 00:14:51.090
  • DENY REALITY.
  • 00:14:51.090 --> 00:14:51.280
  • YOU KNOW: "FINE.
  • 00:14:51.280 --> 00:14:52.250
  • YOU CAN HAVE YOUR RELIGION, BUT
  • 00:14:52.250 --> 00:14:53.210
  • JUST KEEP IT OUT OF REALITY. "
  • 00:14:53.210 --> 00:14:55.040
  • OR: "YOU'RE JUST A WACKO.
  • 00:14:55.040 --> 00:14:56.160
  • YOU CAN'T DENY ALL OF THIS."
  • 00:14:56.160 --> 00:14:57.240
  • WELL, IN FACT, ALL OF THESE
  • 00:14:57.240 --> 00:14:59.120
  • SO-CALLED INDEPENDENT LINES OF
  • 00:14:59.120 --> 00:15:01.130
  • EVIDENCE REST ON A COMMON
  • 00:15:01.130 --> 00:15:03.150
  • ASSUMPTION THAT WHAT WE
  • 00:15:03.150 --> 00:15:04.250
  • SEE TODAY, IF YOU'RE LOOKING AT
  • 00:15:04.250 --> 00:15:05.230
  • THE GRAND CANYON, THE COLORADO
  • 00:15:05.230 --> 00:15:06.220
  • RIVER -- HOW FAST OR SLOWLY
  • 00:15:06.220 --> 00:15:07.250
  • DOES IT ERODE? -- THEY ASSUME
  • 00:15:07.250 --> 00:15:09.160
  • THE PRESENT RATES OF EROSION
  • 00:15:09.160 --> 00:15:10.160
  • HAVE BEEN THE SAME AS THEY'VE
  • 00:15:10.160 --> 00:15:11.220
  • BEEN IN THE PAST.
  • 00:15:11.220 --> 00:15:12.120
  • THEY ASSUME PRESENT RATE
  • 00:15:12.120 --> 00:15:13.010
  • OF EXPANSION.
  • 00:15:13.010 --> 00:15:14.150
  • THERE'S ALL THESE ASSUMPTIONS
  • 00:15:14.150 --> 00:15:15.180
  • UNDERGIRDING THESE
  • 00:15:15.180 --> 00:15:16.210
  • COMMON METHODS.
  • 00:15:16.210 --> 00:15:17.290
  • PRESENT IS THE KEY TO THE PAST.
  • 00:15:17.290 --> 00:15:19.160
  • WITHOUT, MILLIONS OF
  • 00:15:19.160 --> 00:15:20.200
  • YEARS COLLAPSES.
  • 00:15:20.200 --> 00:15:23.200
  • IF THE COLORADO RIVER ONCE
  • 00:15:23.200 --> 00:15:24.290
  • FLOWED MUCH FASTER,
  • 00:15:24.290 --> 00:15:26.120
  • IF THERE WAS A GLOBAL FLOOD
  • 00:15:26.120 --> 00:15:27.160
  • THAT CUT THROUGH THAT CANYON
  • 00:15:27.160 --> 00:15:29.210
  • VERY QUICKLY, ANY OF THESE
  • 00:15:29.210 --> 00:15:30.280
  • THINGS ARE BIBLICAL HISTORY.
  • 00:15:30.280 --> 00:15:32.100
  • IF THINGS WERE SPED UP IN TIMES
  • 00:15:32.100 --> 00:15:33.180
  • PAST COMPARED TO TODAY THE MATH
  • 00:15:33.180 --> 00:15:34.260
  • BREAKS DOWN.
  • 00:15:34.260 --> 00:15:37.260
  • AND YOU DON'T GET MILLIONS
  • 00:15:37.260 --> 00:15:38.290
  • OF YEARS.
  • 00:15:38.290 --> 00:15:39.270
  • YOU GET SOMETHING MUCH SHORTER.
  • 00:15:39.270 --> 00:15:41.030
  • - DAVID: OOOKAY.
  • 00:15:41.030 --> 00:15:42.070
  • - DR. JEANSON: SO, IT'S
  • 00:15:42.070 --> 00:15:43.000
  • INDEPENDENT LINES OF EVIDENCE.
  • 00:15:43.000 --> 00:15:44.010
  • IT'S MULTIPLE ATTEMPTS RESTING
  • 00:15:44.010 --> 00:15:45.110
  • ON THE SAME ASSUMPTION THAT
  • 00:15:45.110 --> 00:15:47.090
  • LEAD TO THIS CONCLUSION.
  • 00:15:47.090 --> 00:15:49.090
  • SO, THIS WHOLE DEBATE CAN BE
  • 00:15:49.090 --> 00:15:50.210
  • BOILED DOWN TO THAT ONE FACT.
  • 00:15:50.210 --> 00:15:51.120
  • - DAVID: YES.
  • 00:15:51.120 --> 00:15:52.210
  • - DR. JEANSON: IS THE PRESENT
  • 00:15:52.210 --> 00:15:53.140
  • THE KEY TO THE PAST?
  • 00:15:53.140 --> 00:15:54.120
  • OR HAVE THINGS CHANGED?
  • 00:15:54.120 --> 00:15:55.210
  • - DAVID: LET'S TALK ABOUT THAT
  • 00:15:55.210 --> 00:15:56.290
  • FOR A MOMENT.
  • 00:15:56.290 --> 00:15:57.160
  • YOU'RE TALKING ABOUT WHAT
  • 00:15:57.160 --> 00:15:58.140
  • CHARLES LYELL LABELED AS
  • 00:15:58.140 --> 00:16:00.020
  • UNIFORMITARIANISM...
  • 00:16:00.020 --> 00:16:02.050
  • - DR. JEANSON: EXACTLY.
  • 00:16:02.050 --> 00:16:02.250
  • - DAVID: ...THAT ALL YOU HAVE
  • 00:16:02.250 --> 00:16:04.030
  • TO DO IS LOOK AT WHAT'S
  • 00:16:04.030 --> 00:16:05.110
  • HAPPENING TODAY
  • 00:16:05.110 --> 00:16:06.000
  • AND...EXTRAPOLATE BACKWARDS,
  • 00:16:06.000 --> 00:16:08.060
  • BASICALLY, AND THAT TELLS YOU
  • 00:16:08.060 --> 00:16:09.160
  • WHAT HAPPENED IN THE PAST.
  • 00:16:09.160 --> 00:16:10.150
  • IT IGNORES THINGS THAT WE HAVE
  • 00:16:10.150 --> 00:16:13.150
  • SEEN HAPPEN: CATASTROPHISM--
  • 00:16:13.230 --> 00:16:16.230
  • - DR. JEANSON: EXACTLY.
  • 00:16:16.230 --> 00:16:17.110
  • - DAVID: --EARTHQUAKES,
  • 00:16:17.110 --> 00:16:17.290
  • VOLCANOES...PLATE SLIPPAGE.
  • 00:16:17.290 --> 00:16:20.250
  • I MEAN, WE COULD GO ON AND
  • 00:16:20.250 --> 00:16:21.220
  • ON AND ON.
  • 00:16:21.220 --> 00:16:22.180
  • FLOODS, TSUNAMIS...ON AND
  • 00:16:22.180 --> 00:16:23.270
  • ON AND ON.
  • 00:16:24.200 --> 00:16:27.200
  • THOSE THINGS CREATE RAPID
  • 00:16:27.200 --> 00:16:30.090
  • GEOLOGICAL EVENTS THAT...FLY IN
  • 00:16:30.090 --> 00:16:32.050
  • THE FACE OF UNIFORMITARIANISM,
  • 00:16:32.050 --> 00:16:33.190
  • THAT THE PRESENT IS THE KEY
  • 00:16:33.190 --> 00:16:35.180
  • TO THE PAST.
  • 00:16:35.180 --> 00:16:37.270
  • AND THAT WILL VASTLY SKEW THE
  • 00:16:37.290 --> 00:16:40.290
  • NUMBERS WE GET WHEN WE TRY TO
  • 00:16:40.290 --> 00:16:42.020
  • DETERMINE THE AGE OF THE EARTH.
  • 00:16:42.020 --> 00:16:44.100
  • - DR. JEANSON: AND WHAT WE'VE
  • 00:16:44.100 --> 00:16:45.200
  • JUST DISCUSSED IS LARGELY
  • 00:16:45.200 --> 00:16:46.090
  • - DR. JEANSON: WHAT I FOUND
  • 00:16:48.210 --> 00:16:49.150
  • THAT HAS REALLY TURNED ALL THIS
  • 00:16:49.150 --> 00:16:50.180
  • UPSIDE DOWN IS A DISCOVERY IN
  • 00:16:50.180 --> 00:16:51.180
  • GENETICS THAT HITS DIRECTLY AT
  • 00:16:51.180 --> 00:16:54.180
  • THE CENTRAL ASSUMPTION,
  • 00:16:54.180 --> 00:16:55.170
  • DIRECTLY AT THIS WHOLE FIELD,
  • 00:16:55.210 --> 00:16:58.210
  • IN A WAY THAT'S STILL
  • 00:16:58.210 --> 00:16:59.170
  • SO, YOU AND I HAVE,
  • 00:17:01.240 --> 00:17:03.210
  • WITHIN OUR BODIES,
  • 00:17:03.210 --> 00:17:04.170
  • CLOCKS THAT ARE TICKING.
  • 00:17:04.170 --> 00:17:05.130
  • - DAVID: AHA!
  • 00:17:05.130 --> 00:17:06.130
  • - DR. JEANSON: THESE CLOCKS
  • 00:17:06.130 --> 00:17:07.070
  • POINT BACK TOWARDS 6.000 YEARS.
  • 00:17:07.070 --> 00:17:07.290
  • AND THEY DO SO IN A WAY...THAT
  • 00:17:07.290 --> 00:17:08.230
  • STRIKES AT THE HEART OF THIS
  • 00:17:08.230 --> 00:17:10.130
  • GEOLOGIC, ASTRONOMICAL
  • 00:17:10.130 --> 00:17:11.190
  • CONCLUSION.
  • 00:17:11.270 --> 00:17:14.270
  • PRESENT'S THE KEY TO THE PAST.
  • 00:17:14.270 --> 00:17:16.000
  • - DAVID: INTERESTING.
  • 00:17:16.010 --> 00:17:19.010
  • OKAY, SO, THIS IS TALKING ABOUT
  • 00:17:19.010 --> 00:17:20.000
  • LIFE, BIOLOGY.
  • 00:17:20.000 --> 00:17:22.000
  • - DR. JEANSON: YES.
  • 00:17:22.000 --> 00:17:22.210
  • - DAVID: INCLUDING HUMANKIND.
  • 00:17:22.210 --> 00:17:24.100
  • - DR. JEANSON: EXACTLY.
  • 00:17:24.100 --> 00:17:25.150
  • - DAVID: WE ASKED PEOPLE ON
  • 00:17:25.150 --> 00:17:26.290
  • THE STREET ANOTHER QUESTION.
  • 00:17:26.290 --> 00:17:27.230
  • WE'VE ALREADY LOOKED AT HOW OLD
  • 00:17:27.230 --> 00:17:29.110
  • IS THE EARTH.
  • 00:17:29.110 --> 00:17:31.010
  • WELL, LET'S LOOK AT RESPONSES
  • 00:17:31.010 --> 00:17:32.090
  • TO THE QUESTION: HOW OLD DO YOU
  • 00:17:32.090 --> 00:17:34.070
  • THINK HUMANS HAVE BEEN
  • 00:17:34.070 --> 00:17:35.200
  • [INDISTINCT CHATTER]
  • 00:17:39.040 --> 00:17:40.100
  • - FEMALE VOICE: I WANNA BRING
  • 00:17:40.100 --> 00:17:41.100
  • - INTERVIEWEE: FIFTY THOUSAND
  • 00:17:43.160 --> 00:17:44.070
  • YEARS?
  • 00:17:44.070 --> 00:17:44.160
  • - INTERVIEWEE: I DON'T KNOW.
  • 00:17:44.160 --> 00:17:45.120
  • TOPS?
  • 00:17:45.120 --> 00:17:46.040
  • HALF A MILLION.
  • 00:17:46.040 --> 00:17:46.290
  • SOMEWHERE AROUND THERE.
  • 00:17:46.290 --> 00:17:47.250
  • - INTERVIEWEE: LONGER THAN THE
  • 00:17:47.250 --> 00:17:48.170
  • BIBLE...SAYS.
  • 00:17:48.170 --> 00:17:50.030
  • - INTERVIEWEE: [WAFFLING
  • 00:17:50.030 --> 00:17:51.040
  • UTTERANCES]
  • 00:17:51.040 --> 00:17:52.040
  • THHHIRTY-FIVE HUNDRED YEARS.
  • 00:17:52.040 --> 00:17:53.100
  • - INTERVIEWEE: HUNDRED
  • 00:17:53.100 --> 00:17:53.280
  • THOUSAND?
  • 00:17:53.280 --> 00:17:54.260
  • - INTERVIEWEE: IF YOU INCLUDE
  • 00:17:54.260 --> 00:17:55.200
  • OUR ANCESTORS, I THINK IT'S
  • 00:17:55.200 --> 00:17:56.150
  • BEEN-- SCIENTIFICALLY, IT'S
  • 00:17:56.150 --> 00:17:57.260
  • BEEN LIKE 6 MILLION YEARS, BUT,
  • 00:17:57.260 --> 00:17:59.100
  • SPECIFICALLY MODERN HUMANS?
  • 00:17:59.280 --> 00:18:03.000
  • MAYBE 30, 40-, 50.000, SOMETHING
  • 00:18:03.000 --> 00:18:04.050
  • LIKE THAT.
  • 00:18:04.050 --> 00:18:04.280
  • - INTERVIEWEE: UH, ABOUT 6.000
  • 00:18:04.280 --> 00:18:05.200
  • YEARS.
  • 00:18:05.200 --> 00:18:06.120
  • - INTERVIEWEE: OH.
  • 00:18:06.120 --> 00:18:06.280
  • FOREVER.
  • 00:18:06.280 --> 00:18:07.240
  • A VERY LONG TIME.
  • 00:18:07.240 --> 00:18:09.080
  • NOT THE WHOLE TIME.
  • 00:18:09.080 --> 00:18:11.180
  • [CLICKS TONGUE]
  • 00:18:11.180 --> 00:18:12.040
  • I'M NOT SURE.
  • 00:18:12.040 --> 00:18:13.080
  • - INTERVIEWEE: UM...A HUNDRED
  • 00:18:13.080 --> 00:18:13.290
  • THOUSAND YEARS.
  • 00:18:13.290 --> 00:18:14.230
  • - INTERVIEWEE, LEFT: ABOUT
  • 00:18:14.230 --> 00:18:15.130
  • 4.000 YEARS.
  • 00:18:15.130 --> 00:18:16.140
  • [CHUCKLES]
  • 00:18:16.140 --> 00:18:17.080
  • - INTERVIEWEE, RIGHT: YEAH,
  • 00:18:17.080 --> 00:18:18.250
  • - DAVID: AND...AGAIN, WE SEE A
  • 00:18:25.180 --> 00:18:26.100
  • LOT OF DIFFERENT RESPONSES,
  • 00:18:26.100 --> 00:18:27.190
  • WHICH MEANS THAT MOST PEOPLE
  • 00:18:27.190 --> 00:18:30.010
  • DON'T REALLY HAVE A
  • 00:18:30.010 --> 00:18:32.130
  • GRASP ON IT.
  • 00:18:32.130 --> 00:18:33.290
  • THEY'VE JUST BEEN
  • 00:18:33.290 --> 00:18:34.260
  • TOLD SOMETHING.
  • 00:18:34.260 --> 00:18:35.250
  • MANY HAVE FORGOTTEN THE ACTUAL
  • 00:18:35.250 --> 00:18:37.070
  • NUMBER THAT THEY'VE BEEN TOLD
  • 00:18:37.070 --> 00:18:39.030
  • IN SCHOOLS AND UNIVERSITIES.
  • 00:18:39.030 --> 00:18:40.260
  • BUT IT'S ALL BASED
  • 00:18:41.010 --> 00:18:44.010
  • ON ASSUMPTIONS.
  • 00:18:44.010 --> 00:18:45.160
  • YOUR DISCOVERIES, THE
  • 00:18:45.160 --> 00:18:46.270
  • DISCOVERIES OF GENETICISTS AND
  • 00:18:46.270 --> 00:18:48.120
  • BIOLOGISTS LOOKING AT THESE
  • 00:18:48.120 --> 00:18:50.140
  • THINGS -- THIS IS RECENT,
  • 00:18:50.140 --> 00:18:51.190
  • RIGHT?
  • 00:18:51.190 --> 00:18:54.190
  • - DR. JEANSON: RECENT
  • 00:18:54.190 --> 00:18:55.090
  • RESEARCH.
  • 00:18:55.090 --> 00:18:55.270
  • - DAVID: I MEAN, THIS IS
  • 00:18:55.270 --> 00:18:57.060
  • SOMETHING CHARLES DARWIN DIDN'T
  • 00:18:57.060 --> 00:18:58.010
  • HAVE ACCESS TO?
  • 00:18:58.010 --> 00:18:58.230
  • - DR. JEANSON: NO ACCESS TO.
  • 00:18:58.230 --> 00:18:59.170
  • - DAVID: OKAY.
  • 00:18:59.170 --> 00:19:00.030
  • BREAK IT DOWN FOR US.
  • 00:19:00.030 --> 00:19:00.200
  • - DR. JEANSON: ONE THING I DID
  • 00:19:00.200 --> 00:19:01.240
  • NOTICE IN THESE ANSWERS THAT I
  • 00:19:01.240 --> 00:19:03.000
  • THINK IS A CRITICAL POINT IN
  • 00:19:03.000 --> 00:19:05.050
  • THIS DISCUSSION IS: MOST PEOPLE
  • 00:19:05.050 --> 00:19:06.080
  • RECOGNIZE MAINSTREAM VIEW IS
  • 00:19:06.080 --> 00:19:07.290
  • MILLIONS OF YEARS FOR THE
  • 00:19:07.290 --> 00:19:09.200
  • EARTH, BILLIONS OF YEARS FOR
  • 00:19:09.200 --> 00:19:10.220
  • THE EARTH, AND HUMANS ARE PART
  • 00:19:10.220 --> 00:19:11.130
  • OF THAT LONG TIMESCALE.
  • 00:19:11.130 --> 00:19:13.150
  • - DAVID: OKAY.
  • 00:19:13.150 --> 00:19:14.180
  • - DR. JEANSON: THEY'RE NOT
  • 00:19:14.180 --> 00:19:15.080
  • HERE AT THE BEGINNING OF THE
  • 00:19:15.080 --> 00:19:16.050
  • EARTH, THEY'RE NEAR THE END,
  • 00:19:16.050 --> 00:19:17.280
  • BUT THEY'RE DEFINITELY
  • 00:19:17.280 --> 00:19:18.160
  • NOT 6.000.
  • 00:19:18.160 --> 00:19:20.190
  • THEY KNOW MAINSTREAM SCIENCE
  • 00:19:20.190 --> 00:19:21.090
  • STILL PUTS HUMAN ORIGINS, HUMAN
  • 00:19:21.090 --> 00:19:22.150
  • SPLIT FROM CHIMPANZEE 6 MILLION
  • 00:19:22.150 --> 00:19:23.170
  • YEARS AGO, 13 MILLION YEARS
  • 00:19:23.170 --> 00:19:25.130
  • AGO.
  • 00:19:25.200 --> 00:19:28.200
  • IT'S STILL AN OLD AGE.
  • 00:19:28.200 --> 00:19:29.070
  • MY POINT IS: THE TIMELINE OF
  • 00:19:29.070 --> 00:19:30.110
  • LIFE AND THE TIMELINE OF THE
  • 00:19:30.110 --> 00:19:31.260
  • EARTH ARE STILL INTIMATELY
  • 00:19:31.260 --> 00:19:32.200
  • CONNECTED, IN MAINSTREAM
  • 00:19:32.200 --> 00:19:34.180
  • SCIENCE.
  • 00:19:34.180 --> 00:19:35.220
  • SO, IF WE'RE GONNA TALK
  • 00:19:35.220 --> 00:19:37.050
  • BIOLOGY, WE ALREADY HAVE A
  • 00:19:37.050 --> 00:19:39.020
  • HANDLE INTO THIS LARGER
  • 00:19:39.020 --> 00:19:40.220
  • TIMESCALE.
  • 00:19:40.220 --> 00:19:41.190
  • BECAUSE IN THE EVOLUTIONARY
  • 00:19:41.190 --> 00:19:42.240
  • FRAMEWORK, THESE ARE INTIMATELY
  • 00:19:42.240 --> 00:19:43.260
  • CONNECTED.
  • 00:19:43.260 --> 00:19:45.280
  • SO, YOU TEST ONE, YOU'RE
  • 00:19:45.280 --> 00:19:46.160
  • TESTING THE OTHER -- AT LEAST,
  • 00:19:46.160 --> 00:19:47.070
  • INDIRECTLY.
  • 00:19:47.070 --> 00:19:47.250
  • NOW, GENETICS CAN OFTEN BE A
  • 00:19:47.250 --> 00:19:50.020
  • FOREIGN FIELD, COMPLEX FIELD.
  • 00:19:50.020 --> 00:19:51.220
  • BUT I THINK MANY PEOPLE ARE
  • 00:19:51.220 --> 00:19:54.040
  • MORE FAMILIAR WITH IT THAN THEY
  • 00:19:54.040 --> 00:19:55.030
  • REALIZE.
  • 00:19:55.030 --> 00:19:55.280
  • - DAVID: OKAY.
  • 00:19:55.280 --> 00:19:56.130
  • - DR. JEANSON: WHAT'S GROWN IN
  • 00:19:56.130 --> 00:19:57.120
  • POPULARITY IN THE LAST FEW
  • 00:19:57.120 --> 00:19:58.080
  • YEARS ARE 23ANDME, ANCESTRY.COM
  • 00:19:58.080 --> 00:20:00.150
  • -- A LOT OF THESE PUBLIC
  • 00:20:00.150 --> 00:20:02.050
  • COMMERCIAL GENETIC TESTING
  • 00:20:02.050 --> 00:20:03.090
  • WEBSITES.
  • 00:20:03.090 --> 00:20:04.180
  • FIND OUT WHERE YOU COME FROM.
  • 00:20:04.180 --> 00:20:05.260
  • WHO WAS YOUR ANCESTRY?
  • 00:20:05.260 --> 00:20:07.030
  • FIND SOME LONG-LOST COUSINS.
  • 00:20:07.030 --> 00:20:07.270
  • - DAVID: PEOPLE WANNA TRACK
  • 00:20:07.270 --> 00:20:08.170
  • THEIR...THEIR ANCESTORS.
  • 00:20:08.170 --> 00:20:09.070
  • YEAH.
  • 00:20:09.070 --> 00:20:09.210
  • - DR. JEANSON: EXACTLY.
  • 00:20:09.210 --> 00:20:10.090
  • THAT'S GENETIC TESTING.
  • 00:20:10.090 --> 00:20:11.140
  • THAT'S-- THAT'S THE BEGINNINGS
  • 00:20:11.140 --> 00:20:12.170
  • OF LOOKING AT THIS PARTICULAR
  • 00:20:12.170 --> 00:20:14.230
  • CLOCK.
  • 00:20:14.230 --> 00:20:15.260
  • - DAVID: OKAY!
  • 00:20:15.260 --> 00:20:16.240
  • - DR. JEANSON: SO, TO HAVE A
  • 00:20:16.240 --> 00:20:18.010
  • CLOCK, YOU JUST HAVE TO HAVE
  • 00:20:18.010 --> 00:20:18.210
  • SOMETHING THAT REGULARLY
  • 00:20:18.210 --> 00:20:20.020
  • CHANGES OVER TIME AND SOME WAY
  • 00:20:20.020 --> 00:20:21.020
  • TO MEASURE THAT CHANGE OVER
  • 00:20:21.020 --> 00:20:21.290
  • TIME.
  • 00:20:21.290 --> 00:20:23.040
  • SO, FOR DNA, WHAT WE CARE ABOUT
  • 00:20:23.040 --> 00:20:24.270
  • IS WHAT HAPPENS FROM GENERATION
  • 00:20:24.270 --> 00:20:25.250
  • TO GENERATION.
  • 00:20:25.250 --> 00:20:27.110
  • AND IF YOU'RE TRYING TO GET
  • 00:20:27.110 --> 00:20:28.210
  • YOUR ANCESTRY, YOU WANNA KNOW:
  • 00:20:28.210 --> 00:20:30.100
  • HOW MANY GENERATIONS BACK DID
  • 00:20:30.100 --> 00:20:31.250
  • YOU HAVE THIS ANCESTOR?
  • 00:20:31.250 --> 00:20:33.070
  • - DAVID: YES.
  • 00:20:33.070 --> 00:20:34.030
  • - DR. JEANSON: OR: IS THIS
  • 00:20:34.030 --> 00:20:34.270
  • PERSON MY SECOND COUSIN?
  • 00:20:34.270 --> 00:20:36.000
  • SO, I HAVE TO KNOW HOW MANY
  • 00:20:36.000 --> 00:20:36.250
  • GENERATIONS CONNECT US.
  • 00:20:36.250 --> 00:20:38.030
  • THAT NARROWS OUR FOCUS TO WHAT
  • 00:20:38.030 --> 00:20:40.070
  • HAPPENS IN SPERM AND EGG.
  • 00:20:40.070 --> 00:20:42.030
  • - DAVID: MM-HMM.
  • 00:20:42.030 --> 00:20:42.280
  • - DR. JEANSON: WHEN SPERM
  • 00:20:42.280 --> 00:20:43.270
  • PASSES ON DNA, WHEN EGG PASSES
  • 00:20:43.270 --> 00:20:45.050
  • ON DNA, THAT'S WHAT WE WANNA
  • 00:20:45.050 --> 00:20:45.270
  • KNOW.
  • 00:20:45.270 --> 00:20:47.140
  • - DAVID: OOOKAY.
  • 00:20:47.140 --> 00:20:48.020
  • - DR. JEANSON: AND WHAT
  • 00:20:48.020 --> 00:20:48.200
  • HAPPENS EVERY GENERATION.
  • 00:20:48.200 --> 00:20:49.090
  • THAT'S WHAT'LL GIVE US
  • 00:20:49.090 --> 00:20:50.010
  • OUR CLOCK.
  • 00:20:50.010 --> 00:20:50.150
  • WE KNOW FROM COMPARING DNA
  • 00:20:50.150 --> 00:20:51.280
  • TO...BETWEEN MOTHER AND
  • 00:20:52.230 --> 00:20:55.230
  • DAUGHTERS, FATHERS AND SONS,
  • 00:20:55.230 --> 00:20:56.200
  • SOMETHING DOES CHANGE.
  • 00:20:56.200 --> 00:20:57.200
  • WE KNOW IN ANCESTRY.COM,
  • 00:20:57.200 --> 00:20:59.230
  • 23ANDME -- THESE USE THE FACT
  • 00:20:59.230 --> 00:21:01.110
  • THAT WE EACH HAVE TWO PARENTS
  • 00:21:01.110 --> 00:21:03.040
  • PASSING ON SLIGHTLY DIFFERENT
  • 00:21:03.040 --> 00:21:04.250
  • VERSIONS OF DNA, WHICH IS WHY I
  • 00:21:04.250 --> 00:21:06.150
  • LOOK LIKE A MIX OF MY PARENTS
  • 00:21:06.150 --> 00:21:07.200
  • WITH DAD'S NOSE, MOM'S SMILE --
  • 00:21:07.200 --> 00:21:09.260
  • WHATEVER IT IS FOR EACH PERSON.
  • 00:21:09.260 --> 00:21:11.020
  • IT'S BECAUSE WE BOTH HAVE--
  • 00:21:11.020 --> 00:21:12.120
  • WE HAVE DNA FROM BOTH PARENTS.
  • 00:21:12.120 --> 00:21:13.250
  • THAT SORT OF CHANGE OVER TIME
  • 00:21:13.250 --> 00:21:16.000
  • IS, AT LEAST IN THEORY, THE
  • 00:21:16.000 --> 00:21:18.030
  • BASIS FOR A CLOCK.
  • 00:21:18.030 --> 00:21:19.080
  • - DAVID: AND IT'S TRACKABLE.
  • 00:21:19.080 --> 00:21:20.190
  • AND THERE'S A LOT OF DATA,
  • 00:21:20.190 --> 00:21:22.040
  • NOW...THAT YOU CAN STUDY.
  • 00:21:22.040 --> 00:21:24.160
  • - DR. JEANSON: WITH EXTREMELY
  • 00:21:24.160 --> 00:21:25.150
  • HIGH PRECISION.
  • 00:21:25.150 --> 00:21:27.050
  • - DAVID: OKAY.
  • 00:21:27.050 --> 00:21:27.270
  • - DR. JEANSON: AND WE CAN PUT
  • 00:21:27.270 --> 00:21:28.190
  • NUMBERS ON THIS AND SAY 3
  • 00:21:28.190 --> 00:21:29.180
  • PERCENT, 3.5--
  • 00:21:29.180 --> 00:21:32.060
  • - DAVID: WOW.
  • 00:21:32.060 --> 00:21:32.190
  • - DR. JEANSON: --2 PERCENT.
  • 00:21:32.190 --> 00:21:33.160
  • - DAVID: OKAY.
  • 00:21:33.160 --> 00:21:34.110
  • - DR. JEANSON: BECAUSE YOU'RE
  • 00:21:34.110 --> 00:21:35.020
  • LOOKING AT MILLIONS OF
  • 00:21:35.020 --> 00:21:35.190
  • DNA LETTERS.
  • 00:21:35.190 --> 00:21:36.110
  • - DAVID: YEAH.
  • 00:21:36.110 --> 00:21:37.120
  • - DR. JEANSON: YOU CAN BE
  • 00:21:37.120 --> 00:21:38.070
  • EXTREMELY PRECISE AND GET DOWN
  • 00:21:38.070 --> 00:21:38.290
  • TO EXACTLY WHO'S YOUR RELATIVE,
  • 00:21:38.290 --> 00:21:39.280
  • WHO'S NOT, HOW FAR AWAY THEY
  • 00:21:39.280 --> 00:21:41.010
  • ARE, HOW CLOSE THEY ARE --
  • 00:21:41.010 --> 00:21:41.250
  • THAT SORT OF THING.
  • 00:21:41.250 --> 00:21:42.250
  • - DAVID: OKAY.
  • 00:21:42.250 --> 00:21:43.130
  • - DR. JEANSON: SO...THE CLOCK
  • 00:21:44.020 --> 00:21:47.020
  • THAT'S MOST RELEVANT FOR OUR
  • 00:21:47.020 --> 00:21:47.280
  • DISCUSSION...
  • 00:21:47.280 --> 00:21:48.200
  • - DAVID: MM-HMM.
  • 00:21:48.200 --> 00:21:49.070
  • - DR. JEANSON: ...THE ONE THAT
  • 00:21:49.070 --> 00:21:50.240
  • INVOLVES THE SIMPLEST MATH--
  • 00:21:50.240 --> 00:21:51.140
  • AND I'M A BIOLOGIST.
  • 00:21:51.140 --> 00:21:52.060
  • I LIKE SIMPLE MATH.
  • 00:21:52.060 --> 00:21:54.030
  • COMPLEX MATH I AVOID LIKE
  • 00:21:54.030 --> 00:21:54.220
  • THE PLAGUE.
  • 00:21:54.220 --> 00:21:55.180
  • [DAVID LAUGHS]
  • 00:21:55.180 --> 00:21:56.040
  • OTHERWISE, I WOULD HAVE GONE
  • 00:21:56.040 --> 00:21:56.240
  • INTO MATH.
  • 00:21:56.240 --> 00:21:57.050
  • SIMPLE MATH IS WHERE...YOU LOOK
  • 00:21:57.050 --> 00:21:58.130
  • AT JUST...LET'S SAY MOTHER AND
  • 00:21:58.210 --> 00:22:01.230
  • DAUGHTERS, FATHERS AND SONS.
  • 00:22:01.230 --> 00:22:03.050
  • YOU'RE NOT LOOKING AT BOTH
  • 00:22:03.050 --> 00:22:05.190
  • PARENTS, WHICH ADDS A
  • 00:22:05.190 --> 00:22:06.060
  • LEVEL OF COMPLEXITY.
  • 00:22:06.060 --> 00:22:07.090
  • THE DNA I'VE BEEN MOST
  • 00:22:07.090 --> 00:22:07.260
  • INTERESTED IN, FOR A WHILE, HAS
  • 00:22:07.260 --> 00:22:09.090
  • BEEN MITOCHONDRIAL DNA -- JUST
  • 00:22:09.090 --> 00:22:10.190
  • THE TECHNICAL TERM FOR...
  • 00:22:10.190 --> 00:22:11.120
  • AND MITOCHONDRIAL --
  • 00:22:11.120 --> 00:22:13.200
  • IT'S MATERNAL.
  • 00:22:13.200 --> 00:22:14.040
  • - DAVID: YES!
  • 00:22:14.040 --> 00:22:15.090
  • - DR. JEANSON: GOES THROUGH
  • 00:22:15.090 --> 00:22:17.220
  • THE MATERNAL LINE.
  • 00:22:17.220 --> 00:22:18.190
  • UH, MEN AND WOMEN HAVE IT.
  • 00:22:18.190 --> 00:22:19.080
  • BUT WHEN SPERM AND EGG MEET,
  • 00:22:19.080 --> 00:22:20.030
  • THERE'S ONLY PART OF THE SPERM
  • 00:22:20.030 --> 00:22:22.030
  • THAT ENTERS THE EGG AND THE
  • 00:22:22.030 --> 00:22:23.090
  • MITOCHONDRIAL LEFT OUT, WHICH
  • 00:22:23.090 --> 00:22:24.140
  • IS WHY, THEN, IT ONLY COMES
  • 00:22:24.140 --> 00:22:25.070
  • THROUGH MOM.
  • 00:22:25.070 --> 00:22:26.000
  • BECAUSE EGG STILL RETAINS IT.
  • 00:22:26.000 --> 00:22:27.050
  • THAT'S THE TECHNICAL CELL
  • 00:22:27.050 --> 00:22:28.050
  • BIOLOGY OF IT.
  • 00:22:28.050 --> 00:22:28.260
  • - DAVID: OKAY.
  • 00:22:28.260 --> 00:22:29.180
  • - DR. JEANSON: WHAT HAS BEEN
  • 00:22:29.180 --> 00:22:30.270
  • DONE FOR THE LAST COUPLE
  • 00:22:30.270 --> 00:22:32.150
  • DECADES IS TO TAKE
  • 00:22:32.150 --> 00:22:33.240
  • MITOCHONDRIAL DNA FROM
  • 00:22:33.240 --> 00:22:34.120
  • VOLUNTEERS FEMALES -- MOTHERS,
  • 00:22:34.120 --> 00:22:36.110
  • GRANDMOTHERS, AND THEIR
  • 00:22:36.110 --> 00:22:38.040
  • DAUGHTERS, GRANDDAUGHTERS...
  • 00:22:38.040 --> 00:22:38.290
  • - DAVID: YEAH.
  • 00:22:38.290 --> 00:22:39.280
  • - DR. JEANSON: ...AND COMPARE
  • 00:22:39.280 --> 00:22:40.190
  • THE MITOCHONDRIAL DNA
  • 00:22:40.190 --> 00:22:41.080
  • BETWEEN THEM.
  • 00:22:41.080 --> 00:22:41.250
  • AND, THEN, MOST OF THE TIME,
  • 00:22:41.250 --> 00:22:43.040
  • THERE'S NO DIFFERENCES.
  • 00:22:43.050 --> 00:22:46.050
  • YOU COMPARE, UH...MY DNA TO MY
  • 00:22:46.050 --> 00:22:47.290
  • MOTHER'S, WHICH I GET FROM MY
  • 00:22:47.290 --> 00:22:49.040
  • MOTHER --
  • 00:22:49.040 --> 00:22:49.280
  • I DON'T PASS IT ON,
  • 00:22:49.280 --> 00:22:50.230
  • BUT I GET IT FROM MY MOTHER.
  • 00:22:50.230 --> 00:22:51.230
  • YOU LOOK AT MY CHILDREN'S.
  • 00:22:51.230 --> 00:22:52.200
  • I HAVE FOUR CHILDREN.
  • 00:22:52.200 --> 00:22:53.120
  • THEY GET THEIR MITOCHONDRIAL
  • 00:22:53.120 --> 00:22:54.100
  • DNA FROM MY WIFE.
  • 00:22:54.100 --> 00:22:56.030
  • YOU'D PROBABLY NOT SEE ANY
  • 00:22:56.030 --> 00:22:56.290
  • DIFFERENCES.
  • 00:22:56.290 --> 00:22:57.120
  • ON AVERAGE, ONE EVERY FIVE
  • 00:22:57.120 --> 00:22:59.010
  • TO TEN GENERATIONS,
  • 00:22:59.010 --> 00:23:01.140
  • A MISTAKE OCCURS.
  • 00:23:01.140 --> 00:23:02.150
  • SO, WE DON'T EXACTLY KNOW WHY.
  • 00:23:02.150 --> 00:23:04.000
  • - DAVID: OKAY.
  • 00:23:04.000 --> 00:23:05.090
  • - DR. JEANSON: EGG IS COPYING
  • 00:23:05.090 --> 00:23:07.020
  • MITOCHONDRIAL DNA, AS
  • 00:23:07.020 --> 00:23:07.200
  • IT'S PRODUCING--
  • 00:23:07.200 --> 00:23:10.010
  • OR, I GUESS YOU COULD SAY THE
  • 00:23:10.010 --> 00:23:11.130
  • EGG STEM CELL IS COPYING IT AND
  • 00:23:11.130 --> 00:23:12.220
  • PASSING ON THIS MITOCHONDRIAL
  • 00:23:12.220 --> 00:23:14.150
  • DNA TO THE EGG THAT'LL
  • 00:23:14.150 --> 00:23:15.020
  • EVENTUALLY BE FERTILIZED AND
  • 00:23:15.020 --> 00:23:15.250
  • START NEXT LIFE,
  • 00:23:15.250 --> 00:23:17.100
  • NEXT GENERATION.
  • 00:23:17.100 --> 00:23:18.040
  • SOMETHING HAPPENS AND
  • 00:23:18.040 --> 00:23:19.150
  • MISTAKES OCCUR.
  • 00:23:19.150 --> 00:23:20.170
  • - DAVID: ONE TO FIVE
  • 00:23:20.170 --> 00:23:21.260
  • GENERATIONS, ON AVERAGE.
  • 00:23:21.260 --> 00:23:23.010
  • - DR. JEANSON: SO, YOU HAVE TO
  • 00:23:23.010 --> 00:23:24.200
  • GO BACK-- I WOULD HAVE TO GO
  • 00:23:24.200 --> 00:23:25.100
  • BACK TO MY-- NOT JUST MY
  • 00:23:25.100 --> 00:23:25.280
  • MOTHER, GRANDMOTHER, GREAT-
  • 00:23:25.280 --> 00:23:27.020
  • GRANDMOTHER, GREAT-GREAT-
  • 00:23:27.020 --> 00:23:28.060
  • GRANDMOTHER; YOU HAVE TO GO
  • 00:23:28.060 --> 00:23:28.260
  • BACK SEVERAL GREATS...
  • 00:23:28.260 --> 00:23:29.220
  • - DAVID: WOW!
  • 00:23:29.220 --> 00:23:30.100
  • - DR. JEANSON: ...TO FIND
  • 00:23:30.100 --> 00:23:30.290
  • A DIFFERENCE.
  • 00:23:30.290 --> 00:23:31.120
  • - DAVID: OKAY!
  • 00:23:31.120 --> 00:23:31.260
  • - DR. JEANSON: SO, IT'S
  • 00:23:31.260 --> 00:23:32.140
  • PRESERVED WITH HIGH FIDELITY...
  • 00:23:32.140 --> 00:23:33.240
  • - DAVID: YES.
  • 00:23:33.240 --> 00:23:34.120
  • - DR. JEANSON: ...THE VAST
  • 00:23:34.120 --> 00:23:35.050
  • MAJORITY OF THE TIME.
  • 00:23:35.050 --> 00:23:35.240
  • - DAVID: OKAY.
  • 00:23:35.240 --> 00:23:36.130
  • - DR. JEANSON: AND WE HAVE
  • 00:23:36.130 --> 00:23:37.060
  • WITHIN OUR CELLS-- YOU CAN FIND
  • 00:23:37.060 --> 00:23:38.150
  • BIOMECHANICAL MACHINERY THAT
  • 00:23:38.150 --> 00:23:40.220
  • FINDS ERRORS, SEEKS THEM OUT,
  • 00:23:40.220 --> 00:23:43.070
  • TRACKS THEM DOWN, FIXES THEM,
  • 00:23:43.070 --> 00:23:45.000
  • AND...MUCH OF THE ERRORS THAT
  • 00:23:45.150 --> 00:23:48.150
  • OCCUR ARE FIXED THAT WAY.
  • 00:23:48.150 --> 00:23:50.110
  • BUT SOME STILL SLIP THROUGH,
  • 00:23:50.110 --> 00:23:51.150
  • OCCASIONALLY.
  • 00:23:51.150 --> 00:23:52.170
  • - DAVID: HMM.
  • 00:23:52.170 --> 00:23:53.000
  • - DR. JEANSON: WE LIVE IN A
  • 00:23:53.000 --> 00:23:54.010
  • FALLEN WORLD.
  • 00:23:54.010 --> 00:23:54.160
  • SIN -- SIN HAS ENTERED
  • 00:23:54.160 --> 00:23:55.030
  • THE WORLD.
  • 00:23:55.030 --> 00:23:55.140
  • - DAVID: YEAH.
  • 00:23:55.140 --> 00:23:55.280
  • - DR. JEANSON: DEATH HAPPENS.
  • 00:23:55.280 --> 00:23:56.190
  • MISTAKES HAPPEN.
  • 00:23:56.190 --> 00:23:57.060
  • THE ACCUMULATION OF THESE SORTS
  • 00:23:57.060 --> 00:23:57.290
  • OF...UNFIXED ERRORS IS PROBABLY
  • 00:23:57.290 --> 00:24:00.040
  • WHAT LEADS TO CANCER AND
  • 00:24:00.040 --> 00:24:01.020
  • OTHER DISEASES.
  • 00:24:01.020 --> 00:24:02.010
  • - DAVID: OKAY.
  • 00:24:02.010 --> 00:24:02.270
  • - DR. JEANSON: SO, THERE'S NOT
  • 00:24:02.270 --> 00:24:03.250
  • JUST A CLOCK ELEMENT, BUT A
  • 00:24:03.250 --> 00:24:05.040
  • DISEASE HEALTH ELEMENT.
  • 00:24:05.040 --> 00:24:06.180
  • - DAVID: YES?
  • 00:24:06.180 --> 00:24:07.100
  • - DR. JEANSON: FOR OUR
  • 00:24:07.100 --> 00:24:07.290
  • PURPOSES, IT'S THIS TICKING OF
  • 00:24:07.290 --> 00:24:08.240
  • THE CLOCK.
  • 00:24:08.240 --> 00:24:09.220
  • SO, THAT'S WHAT CHANGES.
  • 00:24:09.220 --> 00:24:11.220
  • IT GETS PASSED ON, PASSED ON,
  • 00:24:11.220 --> 00:24:12.160
  • AND THEN, EVERY FIVE TO TEN
  • 00:24:12.160 --> 00:24:13.150
  • GENERATIONS, ANOTHER TICK OF
  • 00:24:13.150 --> 00:24:14.050
  • THE CLOCK HAPPENS.
  • 00:24:14.050 --> 00:24:16.070
  • A MISTAKE ENTERS.
  • 00:24:16.070 --> 00:24:16.220
  • - DAVID: OKAY.
  • 00:24:16.220 --> 00:24:17.200
  • - DR. JEANSON: SO, THE RATE AT
  • 00:24:17.200 --> 00:24:18.240
  • WHICH THIS MITOCHONDRIAL DNA
  • 00:24:18.240 --> 00:24:20.160
  • CLOCK TICKS GIVES US, NOW, A
  • 00:24:20.160 --> 00:24:22.070
  • HANDLE, A WINDOW INTO OUR PAST.
  • 00:24:22.070 --> 00:24:23.030
  • IF WE HAD DNA FROM PEOPLE
  • 00:24:23.090 --> 00:24:26.090
  • AROUND THE GLOBE, LADIES AROUND
  • 00:24:26.090 --> 00:24:28.100
  • THE GLOBE, WHICH WE NOW DO...
  • 00:24:28.100 --> 00:24:29.020
  • - DAVID: YES.
  • 00:24:29.020 --> 00:24:29.290
  • - DR. JEANSON: ...EVERY
  • 00:24:29.290 --> 00:24:30.200
  • CONTINENT, THAT, LOTS OF ETHNIC
  • 00:24:30.200 --> 00:24:32.200
  • GROUPS, THE PUBLIC DATABASES
  • 00:24:32.200 --> 00:24:34.130
  • HAVE OVER 40.000 INDIVIDUALS
  • 00:24:34.130 --> 00:24:35.060
  • WITH DNA.
  • 00:24:35.140 --> 00:24:38.140
  • - DAVID: WOW.
  • 00:24:38.140 --> 00:24:39.200
  • - DR. JEANSON: IT'S A MASSIVE
  • 00:24:39.200 --> 00:24:40.260
  • DATASET THAT WE CAN NOW SAY:
  • 00:24:40.260 --> 00:24:41.220
  • OKAY...HOW MANY DIFFERENCES
  • 00:24:41.260 --> 00:24:44.260
  • SEPARATE A HAUSA
  • 00:24:44.260 --> 00:24:47.100
  • INDIVIDUAL FROM A
  • 00:24:47.100 --> 00:24:48.080
  • FINNISH PERSON?
  • 00:24:48.080 --> 00:24:49.250
  • - DAVID: OKAY.
  • 00:24:49.250 --> 00:24:50.160
  • - DR. JEANSON: A SUDANESE
  • 00:24:50.160 --> 00:24:51.150
  • FROM A CHINESE?
  • 00:24:51.150 --> 00:24:52.160
  • A PAPUA NEW GUINEAN
  • 00:24:52.160 --> 00:24:54.190
  • FROM A GERMAN?
  • 00:24:54.190 --> 00:24:55.200
  • AND WE KNOW THOSE DIFFERENCES.
  • 00:24:55.200 --> 00:24:56.220
  • ON AVERAGE, EUROPEANS DIFFER
  • 00:24:56.220 --> 00:24:59.100
  • FROM ASIANS BY ABOUT...40 FOR
  • 00:24:59.100 --> 00:25:00.190
  • NON-AFRICANS,
  • 00:25:00.190 --> 00:25:02.000
  • ABOUT 80 FOR AFRICANS.
  • 00:25:02.000 --> 00:25:03.140
  • THERE AREN'T THAT MANY
  • 00:25:03.140 --> 00:25:04.260
  • TICKS OF THE CLOCK.
  • 00:25:04.260 --> 00:25:05.200
  • THEN, YOU CAN TAKE THE NUMBERS
  • 00:25:05.200 --> 00:25:07.120
  • I JUST MENTIONED -- ONE TICK OF
  • 00:25:07.120 --> 00:25:09.020
  • THE CLOCK EVERY FIVE TO TEN
  • 00:25:09.020 --> 00:25:10.050
  • GENERATIONS AND SAY: OKAY, HOW
  • 00:25:10.050 --> 00:25:11.070
  • LONG'S IT TAKE TO DIAL THAT
  • 00:25:11.070 --> 00:25:13.040
  • CLOCK 40 TICKS OF THE CLOCK
  • 00:25:13.040 --> 00:25:14.200
  • BACK TO ZERO TICKS,
  • 00:25:14.200 --> 00:25:15.230
  • WHICH BRINGS YOU BACK TO
  • 00:25:15.230 --> 00:25:16.190
  • THE BEGINNING?
  • 00:25:16.190 --> 00:25:17.130
  • - DAVID: OHHHH...
  • 00:25:17.130 --> 00:25:18.010
  • - DR. JEANSON: TO EVE.
  • 00:25:18.010 --> 00:25:18.200
  • - DAVID: OKAY.
  • 00:25:18.200 --> 00:25:19.160
  • - DR. JEANSON: FIRST
  • 00:25:19.160 --> 00:25:20.070
  • FEMALE ANCESTOR.
  • 00:25:20.070 --> 00:25:20.220
  • - DAVID: OKAY.
  • 00:25:20.220 --> 00:25:21.170
  • - DR. JEANSON: WELL, IT
  • 00:25:21.170 --> 00:25:22.050
  • TURNS OUT, YOU RUN THE
  • 00:25:22.050 --> 00:25:23.060
  • MATH -- AND YOU CAN RUN SEVERAL
  • 00:25:23.060 --> 00:25:23.280
  • SCENARIOS -- YOU CAN SAY:
  • 00:25:23.280 --> 00:25:24.170
  • OKAY--
  • 00:25:24.170 --> 00:25:24.280
  • YOU CAN ACTUALLY RUN IT IN
  • 00:25:24.280 --> 00:25:25.230
  • REVERSE, TOO, AND SAY: LET'S
  • 00:25:25.230 --> 00:25:27.000
  • TAKE THE MAINSTREAM
  • 00:25:27.000 --> 00:25:28.070
  • SCIENTIFIC VIEW.
  • 00:25:28.070 --> 00:25:29.010
  • HUMANS AND CHIMPANZEES
  • 00:25:29.010 --> 00:25:30.030
  • HAD A COMMON ANCESTOR,
  • 00:25:30.030 --> 00:25:31.190
  • ACCORDING TO EVOLUTION,
  • 00:25:31.190 --> 00:25:32.260
  • 6 MILLION YEARS AGO.
  • 00:25:32.260 --> 00:25:34.010
  • - DAVID: OKAY.
  • 00:25:34.010 --> 00:25:34.160
  • - DR. JEANSON: LET'S SAY THE
  • 00:25:34.160 --> 00:25:36.160
  • CLOCK HAS BEEN TICKING IN
  • 00:25:36.160 --> 00:25:37.050
  • BOTH OF THESE.
  • 00:25:37.050 --> 00:25:37.280
  • AND LET'S SAY THAT THAT
  • 00:25:37.280 --> 00:25:39.100
  • POPULATION OF PROTOAPES,
  • 00:25:39.180 --> 00:25:42.180
  • PROTOAPEMEN -- WHATEVER IT WAS,
  • 00:25:42.180 --> 00:25:43.290
  • ACCORDING TO EVOLUTION --
  • 00:25:43.290 --> 00:25:44.200
  • SPLITS INTO CHIMPANZEES,
  • 00:25:44.200 --> 00:25:45.160
  • SPLITS INTO HUMANS.
  • 00:25:45.160 --> 00:25:46.070
  • THE CLOCK IS TICKING, NOW, IN
  • 00:25:46.070 --> 00:25:48.010
  • EACH OF THESE LINEAGES, EVERY
  • 00:25:48.010 --> 00:25:49.100
  • FIVE TO TEN GENERATIONS, FOR 6
  • 00:25:49.100 --> 00:25:50.010
  • MILLION YEARS!
  • 00:25:50.010 --> 00:25:51.050
  • - DAVID: WHAT WOULD WE
  • 00:25:51.050 --> 00:25:52.090
  • EXPECT TO SEE?
  • 00:25:52.090 --> 00:25:53.010
  • - DR. JEANSON: LONG PERIOD OF
  • 00:25:53.010 --> 00:25:54.000
  • TIME FOR THIS CLOCK TO
  • 00:25:54.000 --> 00:25:54.170
  • BE TICKING.
  • 00:25:54.170 --> 00:25:55.050
  • AND, NOT SURPRISINGLY, YOU'D
  • 00:25:55.050 --> 00:25:57.030
  • EXPECT TO SEE AN AVERAGE OF
  • 00:25:57.030 --> 00:25:59.040
  • 200.000 TICKS OF THE CLOCK.
  • 00:25:59.040 --> 00:26:00.210
  • - DAVID: WOW.
  • 00:26:00.210 --> 00:26:01.200
  • ALL RIGHT...LAST 30 SECONDS.
  • 00:26:02.080 --> 00:26:05.080
  • TELL ME WHAT WE ACTUALLY SEE.
  • 00:26:05.080 --> 00:26:07.260
  • - DR. JEANSON: IF WE RUN THE
  • 00:26:07.260 --> 00:26:09.180
  • SCENARIO WITH 6.000 YEARS, YOU
  • 00:26:09.180 --> 00:26:10.160
  • GET 40-80 DIFFERENCES.
  • 00:26:10.160 --> 00:26:13.080
  • SO, WITHIN YOU AND ME, WE HAVE
  • 00:26:13.080 --> 00:26:14.150
  • THE SMOKING GUN OF HUMAN
  • 00:26:14.290 --> 00:26:17.290
  • ORIGINS, 6.000 YEARS AGO, USING
  • 00:26:17.290 --> 00:26:19.240
  • EVOLUTIONARY ASSUMPTIONS.
  • 00:26:19.240 --> 00:26:21.240
  • SO, THIS CONFIRMS CREATION AND
  • 00:26:21.240 --> 00:26:23.090
  • PUTS ALL SORTS OF LOGICAL
  • 00:26:23.090 --> 00:26:23.280
  • PROBLEMS IN THE PATH
  • 00:26:23.280 --> 00:26:25.000
  • OF EVOLUTION.
  • 00:26:25.000 --> 00:26:26.070
  • - DAVID: REAL, OBSERVABLE,
  • 00:26:26.070 --> 00:26:28.070
  • TESTABLE DATA POINTS BACK TO
  • 00:26:28.070 --> 00:26:30.230
  • THE VALIDITY OF GOD'S WORD.
  • 00:26:30.230 --> 00:26:32.290
  • - DR. JEANSON: MEASURABLE
  • 00:26:32.290 --> 00:26:33.250
  • SCIENCE PUTS 6.000 YEARS NOT IN
  • 00:26:33.250 --> 00:26:34.250
  • THE CATEGORY OF DIRTY WORD BUT
  • 00:26:34.250 --> 00:26:36.030
  • OF HARD FACTS, HARD SCIENCE
  • 00:26:36.030 --> 00:26:38.040
  • THAT SUPPORTS WHAT THE
  • 00:26:38.040 --> 00:26:39.030
  • BIBLE SAYS.
  • 00:26:39.030 --> 00:26:39.250
  • - DAVID: INCREDIBLE.
  • 00:26:39.250 --> 00:26:40.170
  • THANK YOU FOR BEING HERE.
  • 00:26:40.170 --> 00:26:41.180
  • - DAVID: SECRET CLOCKS ARE
  • 00:26:44.230 --> 00:26:45.130
  • BEING DISCOVERED -- PREVIOUSLY
  • 00:26:45.130 --> 00:26:46.170
  • UNKNOWN TO MAN AND CERTAINLY
  • 00:26:46.170 --> 00:26:47.200
  • NOT KNOWN BY DARWIN WHEN
  • 00:26:47.200 --> 00:26:49.030
  • HE PROPOSED UNIVERSAL
  • 00:26:49.030 --> 00:26:50.230
  • COMMON-DESCENT EVOLUTION.
  • 00:26:50.230 --> 00:26:52.180
  • THESE CLOCKS ARE BECOMING MORE
  • 00:26:52.180 --> 00:26:53.140
  • AND MORE OBVIOUS -- AND THEY
  • 00:26:53.140 --> 00:26:55.230
  • POINT TO ONE THING: THE BIBLE'S
  • 00:26:55.230 --> 00:26:57.010
  • ACCURACY WHEN IT COMES TO THE
  • 00:26:57.010 --> 00:26:58.000
  • TIME SPANS THAT HAVE PASSED
  • 00:26:58.000 --> 00:26:58.200
  • HERE ON EARTH.
  • 00:26:58.200 --> 00:27:01.000
  • I WANT YOU TO JOIN US NEXT WEEK
  • 00:27:01.000 --> 00:27:02.200
  • ON
  • 00:27:02.200 --> 00:27:03.010
  • "CREATION IN THE 21ST CENTURY."
  • 00:27:03.010 --> 00:27:04.190
  • I'M DAVID RIVES.
  • 00:27:04.190 --> 00:27:05.180
  • KEEP LOOKING UP.
  • 00:27:05.180 --> 00:27:06.250
  • TRULY, THE HEAVENS DECLARE THE
  • 00:27:06.250 --> 00:27:07.290