John Wise and Mary Ludwig Hays | TBN

John Wise and Mary Ludwig Hays

Watch John Wise and Mary Ludwig Hays
November 28, 2019
27:33

America's Hidden History

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John Wise and Mary Ludwig Hays

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  • (dramatic music)
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  • - [Announcer] Modern historians
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  • have revised, rewritten and even deleted
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  • entire chapters of American history.
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  • So what are we missing?
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  • What happened to the history that didn't make the books?
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  • Join historian, David Barton and Tim Barton
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  • and special guests, as they uncover the facts
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  • some historians don't want you to know.
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  • This is America's Hidden History.
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  • (dramatic music)
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  • - We're in Essex, Massachusets, just outside of Ipswich,
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  • actually standing on the side of a road,
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  • but it's because the house of John Wise
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  • is behind us and John Wise is a very significant figure
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  • in American history.
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  • John Wise was a pastor in the late 1600s,
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  • the early 1700s and we might logically ask the question,
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  • how did that guy shape the thinking of the Revolution,
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  • almost 100 years before the Revolution?
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  • It's because the ideas established in America,
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  • things that really led us to the Revolution
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  • and those that were rebirthed in the Revolution.
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  • But this wasn't a guy coming from a high position,
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  • actually it's really somebody we would know
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  • more as a blue collar guy,
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  • he was not was a wealthy family.
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  • In fact his father came to America as an indentured servant.
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  • He's the first individual from an indentured family
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  • actually to go Harvard, which is kind of a big ideal
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  • and he got two degrees at Harvard,
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  • which is pretty cool.
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  • But he didn't come from wealth,
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  • although he made himself a very significant individual
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  • in American history.
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  • He also was known as an incredible spiritual leader
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  • and this is one of the interesting things about Wise.
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  • So Wise, as a spiritual leader,
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  • I mean he's a pastor for the community,
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  • but he has recognized as being someone that actually
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  • carried a lot of weight, spiritually.
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  • In fact, there was one point where men from the town
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  • who worked on what essentially would be a fishing vessel
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  • were out and that fishing vessel was overcome by pirates.
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  • And the people of the town found out
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  • then the men from the town had just been captured by pirates
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  • and they called a prayer meeting.
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  • and at the prayer meeting
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  • they're praying for all that might happen
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  • and one of the things that's recorded is John Wise
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  • got up and you could imagine he probably prayed
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  • that God helps them to escape or maybe
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  • that God would convict the pirates
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  • and they'd turn them loose.
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  • But what was reported is that he said,
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  • "God if there's no other way, help them to rise up
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  • "and butcher their assailants and return to us safely."
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  • Well the next morning the men came back walking
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  • through town, with reports that they had risen up
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  • and butchered their assailants and made it back safely.
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  • And all the people in town were so impressed going,
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  • "That's what our pastor prayed for."
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  • - Yeah and he was a big leader in both church and state.
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  • For example, take the state area,
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  • at that time in Massachusets' history,
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  • this was a really rural colony in the sense
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  • that the king had sent a governor over here
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  • to govern the colony.
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  • Now that governor was Edmund Andros
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  • but Edmund Andros gets here and says,
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  • "Hey I'm appointed by the king,
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  • "I'm essentially your king here,
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  • "you guys don't need a legislature anymore,
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  • "you don't need a charter,"
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  • it's kind of like their constitution,
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  • "You need to get rid of that and just listen
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  • "to what I say."
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  • So what he did was he abolished the legislative government
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  • over here, he abolished the elected government
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  • and said I'm the guy, this is all you need.
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  • Pastor John Wise said no, you're not the guy,
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  • we have a legislature over here
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  • and you're not going to do this
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  • and he really rallied the people to speak against it
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  • and speak out against that and said,
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  • this is wrong.
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  • Well, Governor Andros wasn't going to put up that,
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  • so he promptly had John Wise arrested.
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  • He took the pastor hood away from him,
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  • he can't get pastored anymore, you just lost your church
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  • and I'm throwing you in jail.
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  • And he put him in jail and wouldn't let him out.
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  • And he put a trail together but it really wasn't
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  • what we would consider a trail,
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  • it was kind of trumped up judge and trumped up charges
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  • and so he goes through this process of a trail
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  • and so the judge over it is Joseph Dudley
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  • and Joseph Dudley has a little trial and says,
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  • "John Wise you're guilty, you're going to pay a fine
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  • "and you're going to put $1000 down,"
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  • which is a lot of money back then,
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  • to make sure you never say this kind of stuff again.
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  • Well, the people even after that verdict,
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  • people didn't like that and so they get ahold,
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  • back in England, said, "Your governor over here
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  • "is out of control," and the king checks and says,
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  • "Yes, he is," and so he pulls Governor Andros out of there.
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  • At that point the people re-institute their legislature,
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  • but John Wise goes back and says,
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  • "Hey, Judge Dudley, you falsely imprisoned me,
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  • "you would not let me out, that violates my rights
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  • "of habeas corpus,"
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  • and the right of habeas corpus is a legal right that says,
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  • you can't hold someone in jail indefinitely,
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  • you've got to charge them with something
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  • and they never did that.
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  • So he actually sued the judge and got damages
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  • for what the judge had done.
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  • So now that the legislature is back in place,
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  • the people choose John Wise
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  • to be their legislative representative.
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  • So people saw John Wise as a great leader,
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  • not only in the church, but also in the state areas.
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  • - Yeah, one of my favorite examples of John Wise
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  • being an influencer in the governmental arena,
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  • actually deals with the witch trials.
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  • And the witch trials are something that I think
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  • most history books cover here in America,
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  • but it was something over a period
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  • of about a year and a half,
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  • there were 27 people that actually died
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  • through these witch trials,
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  • where people were, as soon as they were accused
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  • of being a witch with no evidence,
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  • just the accusation was often times all that was needed,
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  • saying, "I think you're a witch,"
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  • okay, let's kill him, let's hang them,
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  • let's get rid of them.
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  • And so this went on for roughly a year and a half
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  • where John Wise recognized the ridiculous nature
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  • of how these trials were being run,
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  • he recognized there wasn't the right kind
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  • of rules of evidence so he stepped forward and says,
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  • "We've got to put an end to these witch trials."
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  • John Wise was one of the guys who helps bring an end
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  • to the witch trials here in Massachusets.
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  • Now they did have 27 people who had died
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  • during those witch trials, but also just for perspective,
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  • over in Europe, almost half a million people
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  • were executed during those witch trials in Europe.
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  • America could've been the same
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  • as what it looked like in Europe,
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  • where they could've been so many more deaths,
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  • and there might've been if it was not for
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  • the influence and the work of the Reverend John Wise.
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  • - Yeah, John Wise is really the guy
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  • who had established an American law,
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  • what we call due process rights.
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  • And due process rights, that we have in the constitution
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  • in the fourth and eight amendment,
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  • that's the legal process.
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  • And it was John Wise who helped do that back long before.
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  • As a matter of fact, he went to Governor Phips
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  • and he said, "Phips, you're not doing this right,
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  • "here's what the Bible says about justice."
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  • Because when you look in the Bible,
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  • the Bible gives you the right to confront your accuser
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  • out of John 8, the Bible gives you the right
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  • to compel witnesses on your behalf out of Proverbs 18.
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  • All these Biblical passages dealing with justice
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  • that says you're doing this right.
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  • And Phips looked at that and said,
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  • "Oh my gosh, you're right, we've been doing
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  • "what everybody else is doing over in Europe
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  • "and it's wrong."
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  • And so what happened was Governor Phips
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  • got ahold of Judge Sewall and said this is wrong,
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  • they stopped it.
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  • Governor Phips then called for a colony wide day
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  • of humiliation, fasting and prayer,
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  • seeking to repent before God for having shed innocent blood,
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  • seeking to avert God's judgment on them.
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  • And then they said, this is all wrong.
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  • So what they did was exonerated all those they had convicted
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  • and actually paid restitution to them for what they've done.
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  • So they did want justice but it was John Wise
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  • who helped establish the concept of justice
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  • that we still have today.
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  • (upbeat music)
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  • - We're talking about Revered John Wise,
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  • one of the most important and influential people
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  • leading up to Revolutionary War.
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  • And I've got his book here, this is
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  • "The Vindication Of The Government Of New England Churches,"
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  • this is the 1772 edition.
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  • So it was the one that was printed right before
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  • the Revolutionary War started,
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  • a lot of the Founding Fathers really sharpened their ideas,
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  • got a lot of their philosophy
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  • from what John Wise wrote about in this book.
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  • In fact, John Wise's impact and significant
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  • was so important that a Cornell University historian,
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  • called Clinton Rossiter, he wrote this book,
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  • it's called, "The Seedtime of the Republic,"
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  • and he went through and he identified
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  • six of the most important and influential people
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  • that led to the success of the Revolutionary War
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  • and really creation of America.
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  • And he said that out of the six people,
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  • four of them were pastors and one of them
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  • was the Reverend John Wise.
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  • So as we look back on our history,
  • 00:08:17.120 --> 00:08:19.160
  • we can look at John Wise and thank him
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  • for the amazing impact and influence and the legacy
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  • he left in America.
  • 00:08:24.180 --> 00:08:25.280
  • (dramatic music)
  • 00:08:25.280 --> 00:08:28.210
  • - So John Wise is a leader, not only in issues of state,
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  • but also in issues of church.
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  • And one of the big church issues that arose here
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  • was how do you govern your church congregation?
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  • Now in Massachusets
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  • they were mainly congregational denominations,
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  • which meant that congregation really was in charge
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  • of what happened inside the church.
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  • Well there was a time when Increase Mather,
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  • who was a prominent pastor here,
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  • he saw a congregation choose a pastor
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  • he did not think was fit for the congregation.
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  • So at that point he came up with a plan that says,
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  • you know what, let's have a council of pastors
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  • and the council of pastors can kind of help
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  • rule over all the churches, kind of like district officials.
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  • And so it was an idea kind of like
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  • they have a church hierarchy,
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  • kind of like what the Episcopalians had
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  • or what the Presbyterians had.
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  • Well at that point in time, John Wise says,
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  • absolutely not, we're going to have congregations
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  • govern congregations, we want democracy,
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  • not only in state, we want it in church as well.
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  • He came out with a pamphlet in 1770 called,
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  • "The Churches Quarrel Espoused,"
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  • and in that he went after Increase Mather
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  • and that whole philosophy of having some type
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  • of elite government over the churches,
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  • no, it's of the people
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  • and it needs to be from the people
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  • and they choose their own leaders.
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  • Well that really squelched it and by the way,
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  • he had a real sense of humor
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  • and a really witty way of writing
  • 00:09:49.140 --> 00:09:51.040
  • and his sarcasm really just kind of chopped the feet
  • 00:09:51.040 --> 00:09:53.210
  • out of the other side's arguments and that whole argument
  • 00:09:53.210 --> 00:09:56.070
  • went away.
  • 00:09:56.070 --> 00:09:57.220
  • But seven years later he came out with a different book
  • 00:09:57.220 --> 00:10:00.030
  • and that different book was,
  • 00:10:00.030 --> 00:10:01.070
  • "A Vindication Of The Government
  • 00:10:01.070 --> 00:10:02.200
  • "Of The Churches Of New England."
  • 00:10:02.200 --> 00:10:04.200
  • And in it he looks at here's how we do government
  • 00:10:04.200 --> 00:10:06.140
  • in New England, we do it from the people,
  • 00:10:06.140 --> 00:10:09.030
  • we have democracy in our government.
  • 00:10:09.030 --> 00:10:11.020
  • And he just went through and laid out the principles
  • 00:10:11.020 --> 00:10:13.030
  • of self government.
  • 00:10:13.030 --> 00:10:14.210
  • This is the area that's called
  • 00:10:14.210 --> 00:10:15.270
  • the Birthplace of American Independence,
  • 00:10:15.270 --> 00:10:18.030
  • because that whole concept of the apologetics
  • 00:10:18.030 --> 00:10:21.010
  • of having the people in charge of the government,
  • 00:10:21.010 --> 00:10:24.000
  • that really came to fruition here with what he wrote.
  • 00:10:24.000 --> 00:10:27.060
  • - Yeah and historians noted that there were a lot of ideas
  • 00:10:27.060 --> 00:10:29.130
  • that John Wise promoted during his life
  • 00:10:29.130 --> 00:10:31.180
  • that actually were shaped in what we found
  • 00:10:31.180 --> 00:10:34.020
  • in the Declaration and ideas going forward.
  • 00:10:34.020 --> 00:10:36.070
  • In fact, he opposed a tax that was done here in Massachusets
  • 00:10:36.070 --> 00:10:39.070
  • that people didn't have a say in it
  • 00:10:39.070 --> 00:10:40.180
  • and it was just imposed on them
  • 00:10:40.180 --> 00:10:41.280
  • and so he brings up this idea of
  • 00:10:41.280 --> 00:10:44.000
  • we're not in favor taxation without representation.
  • 00:10:44.000 --> 00:10:47.000
  • Well he preached his entire life that he believed
  • 00:10:47.000 --> 00:10:49.160
  • that we were all God's kids, there should be equality,
  • 00:10:49.160 --> 00:10:51.280
  • there shouldn't be hierarchy,
  • 00:10:51.280 --> 00:10:53.110
  • his father had been an indentured servant
  • 00:10:53.110 --> 00:10:55.210
  • and he recognized, look it doesn't matter what station
  • 00:10:55.210 --> 00:10:57.180
  • of life you're in, if you're a servant,
  • 00:10:57.180 --> 00:10:58.270
  • if you're a leader, we're all God's kids
  • 00:10:58.270 --> 00:11:01.150
  • regardless of color, regardless of servitude or not,
  • 00:11:01.150 --> 00:11:05.180
  • we are all created equal.
  • 00:11:05.180 --> 00:11:07.240
  • Well several ideas that he taught his entire life
  • 00:11:07.240 --> 00:11:10.290
  • actually show up in the Declaration
  • 00:11:10.290 --> 00:11:13.020
  • and the reason we see these ideas even in the Declaration,
  • 00:11:13.020 --> 00:11:14.290
  • it was 1772, the Founding Fathers,
  • 00:11:14.290 --> 00:11:18.010
  • actually the Sons of Liberty, were partly responsible,
  • 00:11:18.010 --> 00:11:21.040
  • here in Massachusets for reprinting Wise's books,
  • 00:11:21.040 --> 00:11:23.160
  • his sermons, they wanted people to know
  • 00:11:23.160 --> 00:11:25.290
  • what this great teacher, John Wise had taught.
  • 00:11:25.290 --> 00:11:28.210
  • Well those ideas then become very prevalent
  • 00:11:28.210 --> 00:11:31.010
  • as the Founding Fathers are shaping the Declaration,
  • 00:11:31.010 --> 00:11:33.260
  • are shaping the government going forward
  • 00:11:33.260 --> 00:11:36.070
  • and so John Wise really, his legacy,
  • 00:11:36.070 --> 00:11:38.220
  • is helping shape America and helping America
  • 00:11:38.220 --> 00:11:41.000
  • actually become a nation.
  • 00:11:41.000 --> 00:11:42.220
  • In fact we have presidents acknowledge
  • 00:11:42.220 --> 00:11:44.070
  • it was the influence of John Wise
  • 00:11:44.070 --> 00:11:45.280
  • that led to what we did.
  • 00:11:45.280 --> 00:11:47.060
  • Calvin Coolidge is one example.
  • 00:11:47.060 --> 00:11:48.250
  • On one of the anniversaries of the Declaration,
  • 00:11:48.250 --> 00:11:50.280
  • he gave a speech and he said,
  • 00:11:50.280 --> 00:11:52.040
  • "John Wise, some of the glittering sentences
  • 00:11:52.040 --> 00:11:54.130
  • "of the Declaration are almost literal quotations
  • 00:11:54.130 --> 00:11:57.110
  • "from the works of John Wise."
  • 00:11:57.110 --> 00:11:59.040
  • (dramatic music)
  • 00:11:59.040 --> 00:12:01.280
  • The reason that in America, we can celebrate independence,
  • 00:12:06.080 --> 00:12:08.180
  • that was really, largely birthed from the Declaration,
  • 00:12:08.180 --> 00:12:11.150
  • it goes all the way back to the ideas from the hidden hero,
  • 00:12:11.150 --> 00:12:14.220
  • John Wise.
  • 00:12:14.220 --> 00:12:15.250
  • (dramatic music)
  • 00:12:15.250 --> 00:12:18.180
  • We're in Carlisle, Pennsylvania,
  • 00:12:47.210 --> 00:12:48.290
  • here to tell a story of Mary Ludwig Hays.
  • 00:12:48.290 --> 00:12:51.020
  • Now she's also known as Molly Pitcher
  • 00:12:51.020 --> 00:12:52.270
  • and in fact if you did a Google search
  • 00:12:52.270 --> 00:12:54.100
  • for Molly Pitcher, she would be one of the stories
  • 00:12:54.100 --> 00:12:56.100
  • you would learn.
  • 00:12:56.100 --> 00:12:57.240
  • Although there's a few other stories you would hear as well.
  • 00:12:57.240 --> 00:12:59.200
  • Molly Pitcher was a name given to many women who served
  • 00:12:59.200 --> 00:13:02.190
  • throughout the American Revolution,
  • 00:13:02.190 --> 00:13:04.070
  • who did some actually rather heroic things.
  • 00:13:04.070 --> 00:13:06.170
  • And it seems to be that this was the catch all name
  • 00:13:06.170 --> 00:13:09.070
  • given to many women.
  • 00:13:09.070 --> 00:13:10.130
  • - Yeah many women served in many roles.
  • 00:13:10.130 --> 00:13:12.250
  • There's about 4000 women
  • 00:13:12.250 --> 00:13:14.150
  • who served in the American Revolution
  • 00:13:14.150 --> 00:13:16.060
  • along with the army.
  • 00:13:16.060 --> 00:13:17.130
  • And one of the things that they did
  • 00:13:17.130 --> 00:13:18.270
  • was kind of like be a quartermaster
  • 00:13:18.270 --> 00:13:21.150
  • and they would supply whatever the troops needed.
  • 00:13:21.150 --> 00:13:24.020
  • So whether it was laundry help,
  • 00:13:24.020 --> 00:13:25.150
  • or whether it was nursing help,
  • 00:13:25.150 --> 00:13:27.000
  • whether it was help with water on the battlefield.
  • 00:13:27.000 --> 00:13:29.190
  • And water on the battlefield was not just because
  • 00:13:29.190 --> 00:13:31.280
  • the guys needed to be able to drink.
  • 00:13:31.280 --> 00:13:33.290
  • So you see this cannon behind us,
  • 00:13:33.290 --> 00:13:35.220
  • they would have artillery crews
  • 00:13:35.220 --> 00:13:37.070
  • and artillery crews, one guy would load the powder in,
  • 00:13:37.070 --> 00:13:39.130
  • another would through the ball down and then ram it home,
  • 00:13:39.130 --> 00:13:41.210
  • somebody behind it would aim it and shoot it.
  • 00:13:41.210 --> 00:13:43.240
  • And so after they would shoot it out,
  • 00:13:43.240 --> 00:13:45.090
  • you've got all this flaming gun powder that went out,
  • 00:13:45.090 --> 00:13:47.110
  • so you've got to put the next set of gunpowder in
  • 00:13:47.110 --> 00:13:49.110
  • and the next ball in,
  • 00:13:49.110 --> 00:13:50.280
  • but if you have flaming gunpowder left from the last shot
  • 00:13:50.280 --> 00:13:53.060
  • and you put fresh gunpowder in,
  • 00:13:53.060 --> 00:13:55.100
  • you could blow that cannon up and injure all your guys
  • 00:13:55.100 --> 00:13:58.030
  • rather than the other guys.
  • 00:13:58.030 --> 00:13:59.100
  • So they would keep buckets of water there
  • 00:13:59.100 --> 00:14:01.030
  • and that water had to be kept refilled
  • 00:14:01.030 --> 00:14:02.190
  • because they had a sponge and they would dip that sponge
  • 00:14:02.190 --> 00:14:04.280
  • in it and then come with that sponge and swab that barrel
  • 00:14:04.280 --> 00:14:07.190
  • to make sure it was wet and everything was put out
  • 00:14:07.190 --> 00:14:09.190
  • on the inside, no fire, it's been extinguished
  • 00:14:09.190 --> 00:14:11.280
  • and then they would load it again.
  • 00:14:11.280 --> 00:14:13.110
  • And so Molly Pitcher would have the haul water
  • 00:14:13.110 --> 00:14:15.270
  • to these artillery crews and keep the water going.
  • 00:14:15.270 --> 00:14:18.060
  • So they became known as Molly Pitchers
  • 00:14:18.060 --> 00:14:20.040
  • because they often carried pitchers of water
  • 00:14:20.040 --> 00:14:22.050
  • and many of them were named Mary or Margret,
  • 00:14:22.050 --> 00:14:24.170
  • something that would lead to the nickname, Molly
  • 00:14:24.170 --> 00:14:26.260
  • and so there would be Molly Pitcher
  • 00:14:26.260 --> 00:14:28.150
  • and that's where she got her nickname was serving
  • 00:14:28.150 --> 00:14:30.090
  • on the battlefield.
  • 00:14:30.090 --> 00:14:31.150
  • - Yeah and her story starts obviously
  • 00:14:31.150 --> 00:14:32.130
  • a little before that.
  • 00:14:32.130 --> 00:14:33.200
  • Where she's growing up in a farming community,
  • 00:14:33.200 --> 00:14:36.090
  • her father's a guy working with his hands,
  • 00:14:36.090 --> 00:14:38.010
  • actually it was reported he was a butcher.
  • 00:14:38.010 --> 00:14:40.060
  • And so as she was growing up,
  • 00:14:40.060 --> 00:14:41.160
  • actually at the age of just 13,
  • 00:14:41.160 --> 00:14:43.180
  • she is sent out to go have her own job,
  • 00:14:43.180 --> 00:14:46.140
  • she goes and works helping at a house,
  • 00:14:46.140 --> 00:14:48.230
  • cleaning, is kind of a servant for them.
  • 00:14:48.230 --> 00:14:50.210
  • As she goes on with life she meets a man named
  • 00:14:50.210 --> 00:14:52.290
  • William Hays, they get married just before
  • 00:14:52.290 --> 00:14:56.160
  • he ends joining the Continental Army.
  • 00:14:56.160 --> 00:14:58.040
  • It was not unusual for wives to actually join their husbands
  • 00:14:58.040 --> 00:15:01.160
  • in the camp, as you mentioned there were 4000 roughly
  • 00:15:01.160 --> 00:15:04.000
  • women that served through the Revolution,
  • 00:15:04.000 --> 00:15:06.050
  • well that was largely wives who were going along
  • 00:15:06.050 --> 00:15:08.220
  • because they didn't want to be at home,
  • 00:15:08.220 --> 00:15:10.040
  • and sometimes even their kids could go with them.
  • 00:15:10.040 --> 00:15:12.020
  • The women were those camp followers
  • 00:15:12.020 --> 00:15:13.180
  • and they did have to get permission of the officer,
  • 00:15:13.180 --> 00:15:15.120
  • to be allowed to be a part of the camp.
  • 00:15:15.120 --> 00:15:17.130
  • And then they were subject to all the rules of the camp.
  • 00:15:17.130 --> 00:15:19.190
  • And so inside of the camp there was this marshal law,
  • 00:15:19.190 --> 00:15:23.170
  • whatever the commander says, even the women were subject
  • 00:15:23.170 --> 00:15:26.040
  • to them.
  • 00:15:26.040 --> 00:15:27.100
  • So if the women disobeyed the rules,
  • 00:15:27.100 --> 00:15:28.240
  • they could be beaten, they could be imprisoned,
  • 00:15:28.240 --> 00:15:30.150
  • they could be kicked out.
  • 00:15:30.150 --> 00:15:31.210
  • So she wanted to be a camp follower,
  • 00:15:31.210 --> 00:15:33.020
  • wanted to go with her husband.
  • 00:15:33.020 --> 00:15:34.160
  • So she goes with her husband and begins serving her husband.
  • 00:15:34.160 --> 00:15:37.150
  • Her husband joins in 1777,
  • 00:15:37.150 --> 00:15:39.240
  • he's part of the Continental Army.
  • 00:15:39.240 --> 00:15:41.090
  • That coming winter, was the winter at Valley Forge,
  • 00:15:41.090 --> 00:15:45.130
  • and that's where things got very very difficult
  • 00:15:45.130 --> 00:15:48.100
  • for the Continental Army.
  • 00:15:48.100 --> 00:15:49.240
  • She was part of that entire winter at Valley Forge.
  • 00:15:49.240 --> 00:15:52.100
  • (dramatic music)
  • 00:15:52.100 --> 00:15:55.030
  • We're here at Valley Forge
  • 00:16:11.000 --> 00:16:12.160
  • which is where Mary Ludwig Hays came with her husband
  • 00:16:12.160 --> 00:16:14.060
  • during the winter of '77 and '78.
  • 00:16:14.060 --> 00:16:16.030
  • And Valley Forge is a story
  • 00:16:16.030 --> 00:16:18.070
  • that's been largely reported in American history books,
  • 00:16:18.070 --> 00:16:20.160
  • people know a lot about the hardship
  • 00:16:20.160 --> 00:16:22.060
  • and the suffering that took place.
  • 00:16:22.060 --> 00:16:23.190
  • But one of the very significant things that happened here
  • 00:16:23.190 --> 00:16:25.250
  • was there was a Prussian officer
  • 00:16:25.250 --> 00:16:27.160
  • who came to America, was helping the Americans
  • 00:16:27.160 --> 00:16:29.180
  • throughout the Revolution,
  • 00:16:29.180 --> 00:16:30.280
  • his name was Von Steuben
  • 00:16:30.280 --> 00:16:32.120
  • and he was a very well established military guy,
  • 00:16:32.120 --> 00:16:35.180
  • who knew very well how militaries should function.
  • 00:16:35.180 --> 00:16:37.260
  • Saw the Americans and thought,
  • 00:16:37.260 --> 00:16:39.020
  • "You guys are not doing any of this right,"
  • 00:16:39.020 --> 00:16:40.230
  • so the winter of Valley Forge he actually began
  • 00:16:40.230 --> 00:16:42.150
  • to train the American military,
  • 00:16:42.150 --> 00:16:44.120
  • train the militia how military actually works.
  • 00:16:44.120 --> 00:16:47.060
  • So he drove them very hard over that winter at Valley Forge,
  • 00:16:47.060 --> 00:16:50.130
  • even that next spring going forward.
  • 00:16:50.130 --> 00:16:52.260
  • So he really helped get them gain disciple and knowledge
  • 00:16:52.260 --> 00:16:55.160
  • of how military really works.
  • 00:16:55.160 --> 00:16:56.270
  • Well, as he's training all the men,
  • 00:16:56.270 --> 00:16:59.080
  • there are many wives and camp followers here as well,
  • 00:16:59.080 --> 00:17:01.200
  • which is why Mary Ludwig Hays is here
  • 00:17:01.200 --> 00:17:03.170
  • and it wasn't just Mary Ludwig Hays and some other
  • 00:17:03.170 --> 00:17:06.130
  • random women here, actually Martha Washington
  • 00:17:06.130 --> 00:17:09.170
  • was part of this as well.
  • 00:17:09.170 --> 00:17:11.010
  • - Yeah Martha Washington actually helped organize
  • 00:17:11.010 --> 00:17:13.130
  • the camp followers who were here.
  • 00:17:13.130 --> 00:17:15.020
  • And of course the camp followers who we here
  • 00:17:15.020 --> 00:17:16.200
  • had to go through everything the soldiers go through.
  • 00:17:16.200 --> 00:17:19.060
  • The same shortage of food at times,
  • 00:17:19.060 --> 00:17:20.270
  • the same cold weather, the same lack of shelter,
  • 00:17:20.270 --> 00:17:23.150
  • they go through everything.
  • 00:17:23.150 --> 00:17:25.000
  • And while the winter at Valley Forge
  • 00:17:25.000 --> 00:17:27.020
  • was tough on the American troops,
  • 00:17:27.020 --> 00:17:28.130
  • about 2000 troops died in that winter,
  • 00:17:28.130 --> 00:17:31.000
  • apparently about 400 of the camp followers also died here,
  • 00:17:31.000 --> 00:17:34.030
  • so it was tough on them,
  • 00:17:34.030 --> 00:17:35.150
  • but they're still a very indispensable part of the army.
  • 00:17:35.150 --> 00:17:37.280
  • - Well at the end of Valley Forge,
  • 00:17:37.280 --> 00:17:40.090
  • one of the first major battles the Americans were part of
  • 00:17:40.090 --> 00:17:42.180
  • was the Battle of Monmouth.
  • 00:17:42.180 --> 00:17:44.020
  • And the Battle of Monmouth, this is where Mary Ludwig Hays'
  • 00:17:44.020 --> 00:17:46.100
  • story really becomes kind of significant.
  • 00:17:46.100 --> 00:17:48.290
  • And it's very apparent that she actually knew
  • 00:17:48.290 --> 00:17:51.050
  • very well what the military had learned
  • 00:17:51.050 --> 00:17:54.040
  • during this winter here at Valley Forge.
  • 00:17:54.040 --> 00:17:55.260
  • (dramatic music)
  • 00:17:55.260 --> 00:17:58.180
  • We're at Monmouth battlefield in New Jersey,
  • 00:18:15.010 --> 00:18:16.150
  • and this is where the first major battle happens
  • 00:18:16.150 --> 00:18:18.180
  • after the winter at Valley Forge.
  • 00:18:18.180 --> 00:18:20.010
  • Now Von Steuben had trained the American troops
  • 00:18:20.010 --> 00:18:22.070
  • all through that winter.
  • 00:18:22.070 --> 00:18:23.150
  • For months they had gone through drills,
  • 00:18:23.150 --> 00:18:25.010
  • preparing them to be able to stop the British advance
  • 00:18:25.010 --> 00:18:27.200
  • and this is really where that took place.
  • 00:18:27.200 --> 00:18:29.060
  • - It is.
  • 00:18:29.060 --> 00:18:30.120
  • Washington actually chose this place
  • 00:18:30.120 --> 00:18:31.180
  • because the British were leaving Philadelphia
  • 00:18:31.180 --> 00:18:33.270
  • and he cut them off, he didn't want them to go to New York
  • 00:18:33.270 --> 00:18:36.020
  • which is where they were headed.
  • 00:18:36.020 --> 00:18:37.070
  • So they had the engagement right here.
  • 00:18:37.070 --> 00:18:38.250
  • Now the day they fought was June the 28th, 1778,
  • 00:18:38.250 --> 00:18:42.060
  • by all accounts it's a very hot day.
  • 00:18:42.060 --> 00:18:44.090
  • Records seem to indicate it was around 100 degrees
  • 00:18:44.090 --> 00:18:47.060
  • and that there were more Americans lost to heat exhaustion
  • 00:18:47.060 --> 00:18:49.250
  • than there were actually to British bullets.
  • 00:18:49.250 --> 00:18:51.250
  • So the battle rages all day long,
  • 00:18:51.250 --> 00:18:54.000
  • all day they're fighting all around,
  • 00:18:54.000 --> 00:18:56.000
  • and at the end of the day, the Americans still held
  • 00:18:56.000 --> 00:18:58.180
  • the battlefield.
  • 00:18:58.180 --> 00:19:00.040
  • So the previous year, they have been losing every battle,
  • 00:19:00.040 --> 00:19:02.020
  • now Von Steuben comes in and here they hold the battlefield
  • 00:19:02.020 --> 00:19:05.050
  • against all the British regulars,
  • 00:19:05.050 --> 00:19:06.280
  • it's considered a big victory for the Americans.
  • 00:19:06.280 --> 00:19:09.100
  • - Now this fence we're beside,
  • 00:19:09.100 --> 00:19:10.280
  • this is where the men would've stood with their muskets,
  • 00:19:10.280 --> 00:19:12.260
  • going against the British,
  • 00:19:12.260 --> 00:19:14.110
  • up on the hill was where the cannons would've been,
  • 00:19:14.110 --> 00:19:15.270
  • and that's where Mary Ludwig Hays' husband would've been,
  • 00:19:15.270 --> 00:19:18.120
  • he was one of the guys working a cannon.
  • 00:19:18.120 --> 00:19:20.080
  • Now legend has it, the story is told that she was maybe
  • 00:19:20.080 --> 00:19:23.010
  • carrying a pitcher up and her husband collapsed.
  • 00:19:23.010 --> 00:19:25.200
  • Now there is some debate about whether he was shot
  • 00:19:25.200 --> 00:19:27.230
  • or whether he went out from heat exhaustion,
  • 00:19:27.230 --> 00:19:29.210
  • what we do know is that he collapsed.
  • 00:19:29.210 --> 00:19:31.050
  • What the records say is that Mary Ludwig Hays
  • 00:19:31.050 --> 00:19:33.030
  • went up and began to operate the cannon.
  • 00:19:33.030 --> 00:19:35.140
  • Now it's probably no coincidence as a camp follower,
  • 00:19:35.140 --> 00:19:37.260
  • she was there at Valley Forge, watching the men drill,
  • 00:19:37.260 --> 00:19:41.010
  • month after month after month,
  • 00:19:41.010 --> 00:19:42.250
  • because that's probably where she learned
  • 00:19:42.250 --> 00:19:44.170
  • how the cannon worked and was able to do what she did.
  • 00:19:44.170 --> 00:19:46.220
  • In fact one of the guys who was here at the battle,
  • 00:19:46.220 --> 00:19:49.160
  • in his record says, she was reaching down
  • 00:19:49.160 --> 00:19:51.250
  • to pick up a piece of the artillery to fire the cannon
  • 00:19:51.250 --> 00:19:54.070
  • and the cannonball went between her legs
  • 00:19:54.070 --> 00:19:56.260
  • and blew off part of her petticoat.
  • 00:19:56.260 --> 00:19:58.200
  • Now it was reported that she said,
  • 00:19:58.200 --> 00:20:00.150
  • "It's a good thing it didn't come up a little higher
  • 00:20:00.150 --> 00:20:02.180
  • "or it could've been dangerous but let's keep fighting."
  • 00:20:02.180 --> 00:20:04.250
  • So it doesn't phase her at all, she keeps fighting.
  • 00:20:04.250 --> 00:20:07.240
  • Well as she works the cannon and throughout this
  • 00:20:07.240 --> 00:20:09.240
  • Battle of Monmouth, this is where the legend
  • 00:20:09.240 --> 00:20:11.260
  • of Mary Ludwig Hays really takes off.
  • 00:20:11.260 --> 00:20:14.020
  • (dramatic music)
  • 00:20:14.020 --> 00:20:16.240
  • William Hays completes his military service,
  • 00:20:38.020 --> 00:20:40.120
  • he and Mary comes back to Carlisle, Pennsylvania
  • 00:20:40.120 --> 00:20:42.130
  • which is where we are.
  • 00:20:42.130 --> 00:20:43.280
  • When they arrive at back at Carlisle, Pennsylvania,
  • 00:20:43.280 --> 00:20:45.050
  • it's not long after they get here,
  • 00:20:45.050 --> 00:20:46.170
  • that William Hays actually dies.
  • 00:20:46.170 --> 00:20:48.100
  • But he leaves Mary a good inheritance.
  • 00:20:48.100 --> 00:20:50.120
  • Well Mary is rather well off in that situation
  • 00:20:50.120 --> 00:20:53.130
  • and she meets a man named John McCauley.
  • 00:20:53.130 --> 00:20:55.100
  • Now she thinks it's love, they get married,
  • 00:20:55.100 --> 00:20:57.160
  • but John McCauley soon starts wasting that fortune
  • 00:20:57.160 --> 00:20:59.250
  • that William Hays left to his wife.
  • 00:20:59.250 --> 00:21:01.240
  • Well it's not long after he starts wasting the fortune
  • 00:21:01.240 --> 00:21:04.060
  • that the fortune is gone and then so is John McCauley,
  • 00:21:04.060 --> 00:21:06.260
  • he abandons her and so now Mary Hays has to find
  • 00:21:06.260 --> 00:21:09.210
  • something to do to keep herself going.
  • 00:21:09.210 --> 00:21:12.070
  • - Back when she was young she had jobs early on,
  • 00:21:12.070 --> 00:21:14.190
  • 13, 14, she has a lot of skills and she was able to do
  • 00:21:14.190 --> 00:21:17.180
  • what she learned in the American Revolutionary War
  • 00:21:17.180 --> 00:21:19.110
  • she did there, so she comes back at that point and says,
  • 00:21:19.110 --> 00:21:22.110
  • "Okay, I'm going to use those skills."
  • 00:21:22.110 --> 00:21:24.010
  • And she does everything around town it would seem,
  • 00:21:24.010 --> 00:21:26.030
  • she paints houses, she cleans homes,
  • 00:21:26.030 --> 00:21:28.130
  • she does whatever's needed, she just kind of hires out
  • 00:21:28.130 --> 00:21:31.010
  • for whatever chore you need.
  • 00:21:31.010 --> 00:21:32.180
  • Even the Pennsylvania legislature hired her
  • 00:21:32.180 --> 00:21:34.190
  • as what's called a char woman, she would go in
  • 00:21:34.190 --> 00:21:36.250
  • and clean the legislature, clean the capitol.
  • 00:21:36.250 --> 00:21:39.150
  • So she had all these jobs going.
  • 00:21:39.150 --> 00:21:41.270
  • And it's interesting that in 1822,
  • 00:21:41.270 --> 00:21:44.220
  • the Pennsylvania legislature voted to give her a pension,
  • 00:21:44.220 --> 00:21:47.180
  • as a retired veteran she died in 1832,
  • 00:21:47.180 --> 00:21:50.000
  • but all of the last years of her life
  • 00:21:50.000 --> 00:21:51.140
  • she was known around town as Sergeant Molly.
  • 00:21:51.140 --> 00:21:54.080
  • - And that was special for the
  • 00:21:54.080 --> 00:21:55.070
  • Pennsylvania legislature to say,
  • 00:21:55.070 --> 00:21:56.210
  • Sergeant Molly, we recognize your sacrifice,
  • 00:21:56.210 --> 00:21:59.080
  • we want to honor you, men got pensions,
  • 00:21:59.080 --> 00:22:01.290
  • why wouldn't we give it to a woman
  • 00:22:01.290 --> 00:22:03.080
  • who had done the same kind of thing?
  • 00:22:03.080 --> 00:22:05.020
  • So this is cool.
  • 00:22:05.020 --> 00:22:06.100
  • And as we talk about the hidden heroes
  • 00:22:06.100 --> 00:22:07.260
  • from American history, Molly Pitcher,
  • 00:22:07.260 --> 00:22:10.140
  • Mary Ludwig Hays McCauley is one of those stories
  • 00:22:10.140 --> 00:22:12.240
  • where we're like, how do we not know this story?
  • 00:22:12.240 --> 00:22:14.210
  • But this is why we do what we do.
  • 00:22:14.210 --> 00:22:16.130
  • And Mary Ludwig Hays is certainly one of those hidden heroes
  • 00:22:16.130 --> 00:22:19.000
  • that we should remember.
  • 00:22:19.000 --> 00:22:20.270
  • (upbeat music)
  • 00:22:20.270 --> 00:22:23.150
  • - I'm down here again with Wallbuilders Collection,
  • 00:22:26.010 --> 00:22:28.090
  • going through our archives and I was able to find some
  • 00:22:28.090 --> 00:22:30.090
  • things relating to Molly Pitcher, Mary Ludwig Hays.
  • 00:22:30.090 --> 00:22:33.260
  • I've got an engraving here probably from around
  • 00:22:33.260 --> 00:22:35.260
  • the late 1800s in a history book of some sort,
  • 00:22:35.260 --> 00:22:38.280
  • but it shows her loading up the cannon,
  • 00:22:38.280 --> 00:22:40.260
  • you've got her husband right there,
  • 00:22:40.260 --> 00:22:42.120
  • laying down on the job because he got shot.
  • 00:22:42.120 --> 00:22:44.200
  • And her doing the amazing work that she was doing
  • 00:22:44.200 --> 00:22:47.270
  • and really, stepping in and stepping up.
  • 00:22:47.270 --> 00:22:50.170
  • But also I figured you know, I'd go ahead
  • 00:22:50.170 --> 00:22:52.150
  • and grab a couple of cannon balls
  • 00:22:52.150 --> 00:22:54.020
  • from the Revolutionary War,
  • 00:22:54.020 --> 00:22:55.090
  • so this is a 12 pound cannonball,
  • 00:22:55.090 --> 00:22:57.050
  • American made, you can see
  • 00:22:57.050 --> 00:22:58.230
  • where they poured it into the mold.
  • 00:22:58.230 --> 00:23:00.140
  • And what's interesting we always think right,
  • 00:23:00.140 --> 00:23:02.140
  • they're shooting these out over the troops,
  • 00:23:02.140 --> 00:23:04.170
  • that's not actually what they did at all.
  • 00:23:04.170 --> 00:23:06.110
  • George Washington actually instructed his artillerymen
  • 00:23:06.110 --> 00:23:09.210
  • to shoot at the ground.
  • 00:23:09.210 --> 00:23:11.200
  • Because what would happen is as this hits the ground,
  • 00:23:11.200 --> 00:23:14.030
  • it will start to bounce and go through rank and file
  • 00:23:14.030 --> 00:23:17.040
  • of troops causing as much destruction as possible.
  • 00:23:17.040 --> 00:23:20.200
  • So I've got some early American cannonballs
  • 00:23:20.200 --> 00:23:23.130
  • that she would've used in battle.
  • 00:23:23.130 --> 00:23:25.230
  • (relaxing music)
  • 00:23:25.230 --> 00:23:28.150
  • - Looking at Mary Ludwig Hays and John Wise,
  • 00:23:34.210 --> 00:23:37.290
  • very different eras, very different times,
  • 00:23:37.290 --> 00:23:40.180
  • different places.
  • 00:23:40.180 --> 00:23:42.040
  • - Very different stories. - Very different stories.
  • 00:23:42.040 --> 00:23:43.110
  • - The impact they had, equally very different.
  • 00:23:43.110 --> 00:23:45.180
  • - But still a lot of the same character traits.
  • 00:23:45.180 --> 00:23:48.110
  • The courage side and really the courage
  • 00:23:48.110 --> 00:23:50.170
  • that kind of breaks profiles,
  • 00:23:50.170 --> 00:23:52.070
  • because what Mary Ludwig Hays did,
  • 00:23:52.070 --> 00:23:54.060
  • okay she can do that, but that's not what you expect
  • 00:23:54.060 --> 00:23:56.220
  • of a woman in the American Revolution.
  • 00:23:56.220 --> 00:23:58.050
  • - No and I think the fact they both challenged
  • 00:23:58.050 --> 00:24:00.080
  • the status quo.
  • 00:24:00.080 --> 00:24:01.030
  • - That's right.
  • 00:24:01.030 --> 00:24:02.190
  • - So to your point that Mary Ludwig Hays is doing things
  • 00:24:02.190 --> 00:24:03.270
  • that generally women weren't regarded
  • 00:24:03.270 --> 00:24:05.060
  • that that's not you really do.
  • 00:24:05.060 --> 00:24:06.150
  • - She was capable of doing it and she did it,
  • 00:24:06.150 --> 00:24:08.250
  • because it can be done. - Very capable.
  • 00:24:08.250 --> 00:24:10.030
  • - And then you look at a preacher like John Wise
  • 00:24:10.030 --> 00:24:12.100
  • and say, well, how many preachers do you know today
  • 00:24:12.100 --> 00:24:15.090
  • that have been arrested and gone to jail
  • 00:24:15.090 --> 00:24:18.130
  • because they opposed tyranny and the government leaders
  • 00:24:18.130 --> 00:24:21.200
  • and they spoke out over taxation and while we're at it,
  • 00:24:21.200 --> 00:24:24.290
  • let's condemn the witch trials because you're not using
  • 00:24:24.290 --> 00:24:27.130
  • due process.
  • 00:24:27.130 --> 00:24:28.210
  • You just look at what he did as a preacher,
  • 00:24:28.210 --> 00:24:30.250
  • you're hard pressed to find a preacher doing that today.
  • 00:24:30.250 --> 00:24:32.240
  • - And I think it's one of the unique things about America
  • 00:24:32.240 --> 00:24:35.020
  • is America has been a place where religious liberty
  • 00:24:35.020 --> 00:24:37.050
  • has been protected for so long
  • 00:24:37.050 --> 00:24:38.270
  • that pastors haven't had to be in that position.
  • 00:24:38.270 --> 00:24:41.200
  • You can look at some nations around the rest of the world
  • 00:24:41.200 --> 00:24:43.070
  • right now, we can look at some nations
  • 00:24:43.070 --> 00:24:45.170
  • over in the Middle East, over in Asia,
  • 00:24:45.170 --> 00:24:47.140
  • we could identity Christians that are thrown in jail
  • 00:24:47.140 --> 00:24:50.070
  • for upholding a Biblical perspective,
  • 00:24:50.070 --> 00:24:52.030
  • where Christians are by far the most targeted,
  • 00:24:52.030 --> 00:24:54.200
  • persecuted group in the world right now.
  • 00:24:54.200 --> 00:24:56.080
  • America's been unique because we've always
  • 00:24:56.080 --> 00:24:59.160
  • protected the freedom of religion and free speech.
  • 00:24:59.160 --> 00:25:02.130
  • But the reason that we protect it in America
  • 00:25:02.130 --> 00:25:05.000
  • actually goes to people like John Wise,
  • 00:25:05.000 --> 00:25:06.260
  • who were the ones who started standing up saying,
  • 00:25:06.260 --> 00:25:08.170
  • "No we can't allow this happen,"
  • 00:25:08.170 --> 00:25:11.030
  • and after his imprisonment, you see at the end of the story
  • 00:25:11.030 --> 00:25:14.050
  • that he is released and the guy that imprisoned him
  • 00:25:14.050 --> 00:25:15.240
  • is sitting back over in Europe.
  • 00:25:15.240 --> 00:25:17.020
  • And so the story takes a very different turn
  • 00:25:17.020 --> 00:25:19.090
  • which actually carries forward to America.
  • 00:25:19.090 --> 00:25:21.070
  • We talk about the Declaration
  • 00:25:21.070 --> 00:25:22.240
  • and how many ideas came from John Wise.
  • 00:25:22.240 --> 00:25:24.140
  • It was pastors like John Wise
  • 00:25:24.140 --> 00:25:26.190
  • that have allowed America to become the place
  • 00:25:26.190 --> 00:25:28.050
  • where we are, where we celebrate those freedoms,
  • 00:25:28.050 --> 00:25:30.040
  • our rights are politically protected,
  • 00:25:30.040 --> 00:25:32.240
  • but at the same time you have a guy like John Wise
  • 00:25:32.240 --> 00:25:35.020
  • fighting for the rights of individuals,
  • 00:25:35.020 --> 00:25:37.020
  • you have a heroine like Mary Ludwig Hays,
  • 00:25:37.020 --> 00:25:39.180
  • who's not afraid to again, stand up for what's right.
  • 00:25:39.180 --> 00:25:42.180
  • And as I think back on individuals like this,
  • 00:25:42.180 --> 00:25:44.250
  • courage is something that's resounding
  • 00:25:44.250 --> 00:25:46.240
  • in both of their lives.
  • 00:25:46.240 --> 00:25:48.090
  • That they're not afraid of consequences for themselves,
  • 00:25:48.090 --> 00:25:51.000
  • they have the courage to stand up and do what they believe
  • 00:25:51.000 --> 00:25:53.270
  • is right.
  • 00:25:53.270 --> 00:25:54.250
  • - And what's cool is nobody,
  • 00:25:54.250 --> 00:25:56.090
  • neither one of the two after they stood up said,
  • 00:25:56.090 --> 00:25:57.130
  • did you guys see my courage?
  • 00:25:57.130 --> 00:25:58.260
  • Did you see me out on the battlefield?
  • 00:25:58.260 --> 00:26:01.080
  • It's like they had the courage and they just moved on,
  • 00:26:01.080 --> 00:26:04.080
  • that's what needed to be done at the time,
  • 00:26:04.080 --> 00:26:06.140
  • they just stepped up and did it,
  • 00:26:06.140 --> 00:26:08.080
  • and of course we make them heroes now,
  • 00:26:08.080 --> 00:26:10.180
  • and they even became somewhat heroes in their time,
  • 00:26:10.180 --> 00:26:13.140
  • but neither one of them wanted attention
  • 00:26:13.140 --> 00:26:15.130
  • because they were courageous, that's just what needed
  • 00:26:15.130 --> 00:26:17.250
  • to be done.
  • 00:26:17.250 --> 00:26:19.010
  • - And they didn't think they were doing
  • 00:26:19.010 --> 00:26:19.290
  • something significant or unique,
  • 00:26:19.290 --> 00:26:21.160
  • they were just doing the right thing.
  • 00:26:21.160 --> 00:26:22.170
  • - Doing the right thing.
  • 00:26:22.170 --> 00:26:23.160
  • (dramatic music)
  • 00:26:23.160 --> 00:26:26.080
  • - [Narrator] We hope you're enjoying TBN's exclusive series,
  • 00:26:30.040 --> 00:26:33.010
  • America's Hidden History.
  • 00:26:33.010 --> 00:26:34.150
  • Thrilling stories of ordinary and unsung Americans
  • 00:26:34.150 --> 00:26:37.160
  • whom God used in extraordinary ways
  • 00:26:37.160 --> 00:26:39.210
  • to shape our nation.
  • 00:26:39.210 --> 00:26:41.060
  • Right now we want to send you the entire first season
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  • of America's Hidden History as our way of saying
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  • thank you for your gift of support.
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  • You will learn how the scriptures played
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  • such a foundational role in the formation
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  • of the United States and discover a wealth of information
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